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Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR46437.2021.01474

Anycost GANs for Interactive Image Synthesis and Editing

04 Mar 2021-pp 14986-14996
Abstract: Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have enabled photorealistic image synthesis and editing. However, due to the high computational cost of large-scale generators (e.g., StyleGAN2), it usually takes seconds to see the results of a single edit on edge devices, prohibiting interactive user experience. In this paper, inspired by quick preview features in modern rendering software, we propose Anycost GAN for interactive natural image editing. We train the Anycost GAN to support elastic resolutions and channels for faster image generation at versatile speeds. Running subsets of the full generator produce outputs that are perceptually similar to the full generator, making them a good proxy for quick preview. By using sampling-based multi-resolution training, adaptive-channel training, and a generator-conditioned discriminator, the anycost generator can be evaluated at various configurations while achieving better image quality compared to separately trained models. Furthermore, we develop new encoder training and latent code optimization techniques to encourage consistency between the different sub-generators during image projection. Anycost GAN can be executed at various cost budgets (up to 10× computation reduction) and adapt to a wide range of hardware and la tency requirements. When deployed on desktop CPUs and edge devices, our model can provide perceptually similar previews at 6-12× speedup, enabling interactive image editing. The ${\color{RubineRed}{code}}$ and ${\color{RubineRed}{demo}}$ are publicly available.

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Topics: Projection (relational algebra) (61%), Image editing (56%), Image quality (52%) ... show more

7 results found

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (cGANs) have enabled controllable image synthesis for many computer vision and graphics applications. However, recent cGANs are 1-2 orders of magnitude more computationally-intensive than modern recognition CNNs. For example, Gau-GAN consumes 281G MACs per image, compared to 0.44GMACs for MobileNet-v3, making it difficult for interactive deployment. In this work, we propose a general-purpose compression framework for reducing the inference time and model size of the generator in cGANs. Directly applying existing CNNs compression methods yields poor performance due to the difficulty of GAN training and the differences in generator architectures. We address these challenges in two ways. First, to stabilize the GAN training, we transfer knowledge of multiple intermediate representations of the original model to its compressed model, and unify unpaired and paired learning. Second, instead of reusing existing CNN designs, our method automatically finds efficient architectures via neural architecture search (NAS). To accelerate the search process, we decouple the model training and architecture search via weight sharing. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method across different supervision settings (paired and unpaired), model architectures, and learning methods (e.g., pix2pix, GauGAN, CycleGAN). Without losing image quality, we reduce the computation of CycleGAN by more than 20x and GauGAN by 9x, paving the way for interactive image synthesis. The code and demo are publicly available.

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Topics: Image quality (50%)

7 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Dongjun Kim1, Seungjae Shin1, Kyungwoo Song2, Wanmo Kang1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
10 Jun 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Recent advance in score-based models incorporates the stochastic differential equation (SDE), which brings the state-of-the art performance on image generation tasks. This paper improves such score-based models by analyzing the model at the zero perturbation noise. In real datasets, the score function diverges as the perturbation noise ($\sigma$) decreases to zero, and this observation leads an argument that the score estimation fails at $\sigma=0$ with any neural network structure. Subsequently, we introduce Unbounded Noise Conditional Score Network (UNCSN) that resolves the score diverging problem with an easily applicable modification to any noise conditional score-based models. Additionally, we introduce a new type of SDE, so the exact log likelihood can be calculated from the newly suggested SDE. On top of that, the associated loss function mitigates the loss imbalance issue in a mini-batch, and we present a theoretic analysis on the proposed loss to uncover the behind mechanism of the data distribution modeling by the score-based models.

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Topics: Score (62%)

4 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Lucy Chai1, Jun-Yan Zhu2, Eli Shechtman2, Phillip Isola1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Recent generative models can synthesize "views" of artificial images that mimic real-world variations, such as changes in color or pose, simply by learning from unlabeled image collections. Here, we investigate whether such views can be applied to real images to benefit downstream analysis tasks such as image classification. Using a pretrained generator, we first find the latent code corresponding to a given real input image. Applying perturbations to the code creates natural variations of the image, which can then be ensembled together at test-time. We use StyleGAN2 as the source of generative augmentations and investigate this setup on classification tasks involving facial attributes, cat faces, and cars. Critically, we find that several design decisions are required towards making this process work; the perturbation procedure, weighting between the augmentations and original image, and training the classifier on synthesized images can all impact the result. Currently, we find that while test-time ensembling with GAN-based augmentations can offer some small improvements, the remaining bottlenecks are the efficiency and accuracy of the GAN reconstructions, coupled with classifier sensitivities to artifacts in GAN-generated images.

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1 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The inversion of real images into StyleGAN's latent space is a well-studied problem. Nevertheless, applying existing approaches to real-world scenarios remains an open challenge, due to an inherent trade-off between reconstruction and editability: latent space regions which can accurately represent real images typically suffer from degraded semantic control. Recent work proposes to mitigate this trade-off by fine-tuning the generator to add the target image to well-behaved, editable regions of the latent space. While promising, this fine-tuning scheme is impractical for prevalent use as it requires a lengthy training phase for each new image. In this work, we introduce this approach into the realm of encoder-based inversion. We propose HyperStyle, a hypernetwork that learns to modulate StyleGAN's weights to faithfully express a given image in editable regions of the latent space. A naive modulation approach would require training a hypernetwork with over three billion parameters. Through careful network design, we reduce this to be in line with existing encoders. HyperStyle yields reconstructions comparable to those of optimization techniques with the near real-time inference capabilities of encoders. Lastly, we demonstrate HyperStyle's effectiveness on several applications beyond the inversion task, including the editing of out-of-domain images which were never seen during training.

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Topics: Real image (54%)

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Face editing represents a popular research topic within the computer vision and image processing communities. While significant progress has been made recently in this area, existing solutions: (i) are still largely focused on low-resolution images, (ii) often generate editing results with visual artefacts, or (iii) lack fine-grained control and alter multiple (entangled) attributes at once, when trying to generate the desired facial semantics. In this paper, we aim to address these issues though a novel attribute editing approach called MaskFaceGAN. The proposed approach is based on an optimization procedure that directly optimizes the latent code of a pre-trained (state-of-the-art) Generative Adversarial Network (i.e., StyleGAN2) with respect to several constraints that ensure: (i) preservation of relevant image content, (ii) generation of the targeted facial attributes, and (iii) spatially--selective treatment of local image areas. The constraints are enforced with the help of an (differentiable) attribute classifier and face parser that provide the necessary reference information for the optimization procedure. MaskFaceGAN is evaluated in extensive experiments on the CelebA-HQ, Helen and SiblingsDB-HQf datasets and in comparison with several state-of-the-art techniques from the literature, i.e., StarGAN, AttGAN, STGAN, and two versions of InterFaceGAN. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to edit face images with respect to several facial attributes with unprecedented image quality and at high-resolutions (1024x1024), while exhibiting considerably less problems with attribute entanglement than competing solutions. The source code is made freely available from: this https URL.

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Topics: Source code (53%), Classifier (UML) (50%)


78 results found

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.90
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... show more

93,356 Citations

Open accessProceedings Article
Diederik P. Kingma1, Jimmy Ba2Institutions (2)
01 Jan 2015-
Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

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Topics: Stochastic optimization (63%), Convex optimization (54%), Rate of convergence (52%) ... show more

78,539 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3156/JSOFT.29.5_177_2
Ian Goodfellow1, Jean Pouget-Abadie1, Mehdi Mirza1, Bing Xu1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
08 Dec 2014-
Abstract: We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to ½ everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer perceptrons, the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the framework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.

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Topics: Generative model (64%), Discriminative model (54%), Approximate inference (53%) ... show more

29,410 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We present a class of efficient models called MobileNets for mobile and embedded vision applications. MobileNets are based on a streamlined architecture that uses depth-wise separable convolutions to build light weight deep neural networks. We introduce two simple global hyper-parameters that efficiently trade off between latency and accuracy. These hyper-parameters allow the model builder to choose the right sized model for their application based on the constraints of the problem. We present extensive experiments on resource and accuracy tradeoffs and show strong performance compared to other popular models on ImageNet classification. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of MobileNets across a wide range of applications and use cases including object detection, finegrain classification, face attributes and large scale geo-localization.

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9,967 Citations

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2017.632
21 Jul 2017-
Abstract: We investigate conditional adversarial networks as a general-purpose solution to image-to-image translation problems. These networks not only learn the mapping from input image to output image, but also learn a loss function to train this mapping. This makes it possible to apply the same generic approach to problems that traditionally would require very different loss formulations. We demonstrate that this approach is effective at synthesizing photos from label maps, reconstructing objects from edge maps, and colorizing images, among other tasks. Moreover, since the release of the pix2pix software associated with this paper, hundreds of twitter users have posted their own artistic experiments using our system. As a community, we no longer hand-engineer our mapping functions, and this work suggests we can achieve reasonable results without handengineering our loss functions either.

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Topics: Image translation (58%)

9,134 Citations

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