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Journal ArticleDOI

Application note: A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

01 Oct 2010-Computers and Electronics in Agriculture (Elsevier)-Vol. 74, Iss: 1, pp 168-173
TL;DR: In this article, a prototype system was developed and constructed for automating the measurement and recording of canopy, soil-, and air temperature, and soil moisture status in cropped fields, consisting of a microcontroller-based circuit with solid-state components for handling clock/calendar, sensor power, and data storage and retrieval functions.
About: This article is published in Computers and Electronics in Agriculture.The article was published on 2010-10-01. It has received 103 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Soil moisture sensor & Data logger.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated irrigation system developed to optimize water use for agricultural crops has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas.
Abstract: An automated irrigation system was developed to optimize water use for agricultural crops. The system has a distributed wireless network of soil-moisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants. In addition, a gateway unit handles sensor information, triggers actuators, and transmits data to a web application. An algorithm was developed with threshold values of temperature and soil moisture that was programmed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity. The system was powered by photovoltaic panels and had a duplex communication link based on a cellular-Internet interface that allowed for data inspection and irrigation scheduling to be programmed through a web page. The automated system was tested in a sage crop field for 136 days and water savings of up to 90% compared with traditional irrigation practices of the agricultural zone were achieved. Three replicas of the automated system have been used successfully in other places for 18 months. Because of its energy autonomy and low cost, the system has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas.

591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of recent IoT technologies, their current penetration in the agricultural sector, their potential value for future farmers and the challenges that IoT faces towards its propagation is presented.

524 citations


Cites methods from "Application note: A low-cost microc..."

  • ...Optical sensors have been used for additional information on crop reflectance or remote temperature sensing, aswell as,mapping of the situation in the field (Fisher & Kebede, 2010; Inoue, Sakaiya, Zhu, & Takahashi, 2012; Moshou et al., 2011; O'Shaughnessy & Evett, 2010)....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: A system is developed to monitor crop-field using sensors and automate the irrigation system, which is 92% more efficient than the conventional approach and will be more useful in areas where water is in scarce.
Abstract: Internet Of Things (IoT)is a shared network of objects or things which can interact with each other provided the internet connection. IoT plays an important role in agriculture industry which can feed 9.6 billion people on the Earth by 2050. Smart Agriculture helps to reduce wastage, effective usage of fertilizer and thereby increase the crop yield. In this work, a system is developed to monitor crop-field using sensors (soil moisture, temperature, humidity, Light) and automate the irrigation system. The data from sensors are sent to web server database using wireless transmission. In server database the data are encoded in JSON format. The irrigation is automated if the moisture and temperature of the field falls below the brink. In greenhouses light intensity control can also be automated in addition to irrigation. The notifications are sent to farmers' mobile periodically. The farmers' can able to monitor the field conditions from anywhere. This system will be more useful in areas where water is in scarce. This system is 92% more efficient than the conventional approach.

175 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Apr 2012
TL;DR: The Arduino project as mentioned in this paper is an open source hardware project that includes a programmable microcontroller development platform, expansion capability through add-on boards, and a programming development environment for creating custom microcontroller software.
Abstract: Scientific research requires the collection of data in order to study, monitor, analyze, describe, or understand a particular process or event. Data collection efforts are often a compromise: manual measurements can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, resulting in data being collected at a low frequency, while automating the data-collection process can reduce labor requirements and increase the frequency of measurements, but at the cost of added expense of electronic data-collecting instrumentation. Rapid advances in electronic technologies have resulted in a variety of new and inexpensive sensing, monitoring, and control capabilities which offer opportunities for implementation in agricultural and natural-resource research applications. An Open Source Hardware project called Arduino consists of a programmable microcontroller development platform, expansion capability through add-on boards, and a programming development environment for creating custom microcontroller software. All circuit-board and electronic component specifications, as well as the programming software, are open-source and freely available for anyone to use or modify. Inexpensive sensors and the Arduino development platform were used to develop several inexpensive, automated sensing and datalogging systems for use in agricultural and natural-resources related research projects. Systems were developed and implemented to monitor soil-moisture status of field crops for irrigation scheduling and crop-water use studies, to measure daily evaporation-pan water levels for quantifying evaporative demand, and to monitor environmental parameters under forested conditions. These studies demonstrate the usefulness of automated measurements, and offer guidance for other researchers in developing inexpensive sensing and monitoring systems to further their research.

155 citations


Cites background from "Application note: A low-cost microc..."

  • ...Experience using these sensors to monitor crop canopy temperature [5] has shown them to work well in a harsh agricultural environment, operate for extended periods under battery power, and provide accurate temperature measurements....

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  • ...A number of microcontroller-based devices have been described in which the specific requirements of a research project dictated the development of customized monitoring systems with unique capabilities [1-5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
18 May 2015
TL;DR: This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture, divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots.
Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots.

126 citations


Cites background from "Application note: A low-cost microc..."

  • ...In recent years, the advent of low-cost and opensource technologies has led to their wide diffusion in the scientific community.(58,59) The possibilities afforded by an open-source hardware system, the most famous example being the Arduino project, include the rapid prototyping of information communication technology systems where circuit models are licensed under Creative Commons and the source codes are publicly available and customizable by the user....

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References
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Book
14 Jan 2000
TL;DR: This textbook is notable in emphasizing that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology, well-suited to assess the costs, benefits and consequences of modifying plants for human needs, and to evaluate the role of plants in ecosystems.
Abstract: -- Plant Science The growth, reproduction and geographical distribution of plants are profoundly influenced by their physiological ecology: the interaction with the surrounding physical, chemical and biological environments. This textbook is notable in emphasizing that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. At the same time, the integrative power of physiological ecology is well-suited to assess the costs, benefits and consequences of modifying plants for human needs, and to evaluate the role of plants in ecosystems. Plant Physiological Ecology begins with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes. Plant Physiological Ecology features numerous boxed entries that provide extended discussions of selected issues, a glossary, and numerous references to the primary and review literature. The significant new text is suitable for use in plant ecology courses, as well as classes ranging from plant physiology to plant molecular

3,574 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a crop water stress index (CWSI) was calculated using infrared thermometry, along with wet and dry-bulb air temperatures and an estimate of net radiation.
Abstract: Canopy temperatures, obtained by infrared thermometry, along with wet- and dry-bulb air temperatures and an estimate of net radiation were used in equations derived from energy balance considerations to calculate a crop water stress index (CWSI). Theoretical limits were developed for the canopy air temperature difference as related to the air vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI was shown to be equal to 1 - E/Ep, the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration obtained from the Penman-Monteith equation. Four experimental plots, planted to wheat, received postemergence irrigations at different times to create different degrees of water stress. Pertinent variables were measured between 1340 and 1400 each day (except some weekends). The CWSI, plotted as a function of time, closely paralleled a plot of the extractable soil water in the 0- to 1.1-m zone. The usefulness and limitations of the index are discussed.

1,642 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1982

490 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Several physiological traits showed closer association with each other than did performance traits, supporting the idea that such stress-adaptive traits have genetic value across stresses.
Abstract: While genetic resources provide an invaluable gene pool for crop breeding, the majority of accessions in germplasm collections remain uncharacterized and their potential to improve stress adaptation is not quantified. A selection of 25 elite genetic resources for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were characterized for agronomic and physiological trait expression in drought- and heat-stessed environments. Under drought, the physiological traits best associated with yield were canopy temperature, associated with water uptake, und carbon isotope discrimination, associated with transpiration efficiency. Under heat stress stomatal conductance, leaf chlorophyll content, and canopy temperature (associated with radiation use efficiency in this environment) were well correlated with yield. Theoretical yield gains based on extrapolating the best trait expression to the highest yielding backgrounds were also estimated. Under drought, the best expression of canopy temperature and carbon isotope discrimination suggested petential yield gains of approximately 10 and 9% above the best yielding cultivars, respectively; under heat stress, canopy temperature and remobilization of stem carbohydrates suggested potential yield gains of approximately 7 and 9%, respectively. Other physiological trait expression was associated with potential yield gains to varying degrees. When considering agronomic traits, the best expression of harvest index suggested yield gains of approximately 14 and 24% in drought and hot environments, respectively, while the combined best expression of both harvest index and final aboveground biomass suggested yield gains of 30 and 34%, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated that mass were not strongly associated with each other, suggesting potential cumulative gene action for yield if traits were combined. When comparing trait expression across drought and hot environments, several physiological traits (e.g., canopy temperature) showed closer association with each other than did performance traits, supporting the idea that such stress-adaptive traits have genetic value across stresses.

184 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, the relation between variability in fine-resolution measurements of canopy temperature and crop water stress in cotton fields in Central Arizona, USA was explored by using both mea- surements and simulation models.
Abstract: Irrigation scheduling requires an operational means to quantify plant water stress. Remote sensing may offer quick measurements with regional coverage that cannot be achieved by current ground-based sam- pling techniques. This study explored the relation between variability in fine-resolution measurements of canopy temperature and crop water stress in cotton fields in Central Arizona, USA. By using both mea- surements and simulation models, this analysis compared the standard deviation of the canopy tem- perature rTc ðÞ to the more complex and data intensive crop water stress index (CWSI). For low water stress, field rTc was used to quantify water deficit with some confidence. For moderately stressed crops, the rTc was very sensitive to variations in plant water stress and had a linear relation with field-scale CWSI. For highly stressed crops, the estimation of water stress from rTc is not recommended. For all applications of rTc ; one must account for variations in irrigation uniformity, field root zone water holding capacity, meteorological conditions and spatial resolution of Tc data. These sensitivities limit the operational application of rTc for irrigation sched- uling. On the other hand, rTc was most sensitive to water stress in the range in which most irrigation deci- sions are made, thus, with some consideration of daily meteorological conditions, rTc could provide a relative measure of temporal variations in root zone water availability. For large irrigation districts, this may be an economical option for minimizing water use and maxi- mizing crop yield.

125 citations