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Proceedings ArticleDOI

ArcFace: Additive Angular Margin Loss for Deep Face Recognition

Jiankang Deng1, Jia Guo, Niannan Xue1, Stefanos Zafeiriou1 
15 Jun 2019-pp 4690-4699

TL;DR: This paper presents arguably the most extensive experimental evaluation against all recent state-of-the-art face recognition methods on ten face recognition benchmarks, and shows that ArcFace consistently outperforms the state of the art and can be easily implemented with negligible computational overhead.

AbstractOne of the main challenges in feature learning using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) for large-scale face recognition is the design of appropriate loss functions that can enhance the discriminative power. Centre loss penalises the distance between deep features and their corresponding class centres in the Euclidean space to achieve intra-class compactness. SphereFace assumes that the linear transformation matrix in the last fully connected layer can be used as a representation of the class centres in the angular space and therefore penalises the angles between deep features and their corresponding weights in a multiplicative way. Recently, a popular line of research is to incorporate margins in well-established loss functions in order to maximise face class separability. In this paper, we propose an Additive Angular Margin Loss (ArcFace) to obtain highly discriminative features for face recognition. The proposed ArcFace has a clear geometric interpretation due to its exact correspondence to geodesic distance on a hypersphere. We present arguably the most extensive experimental evaluation against all recent state-of-the-art face recognition methods on ten face recognition benchmarks which includes a new large-scale image database with trillions of pairs and a large-scale video dataset. We show that ArcFace consistently outperforms the state of the art and can be easily implemented with negligible computational overhead. To facilitate future research, the code has been made available.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this letter, we propose a conceptually simple and intuitive learning objective function, i.e., additive margin softmax, for face verification. In general, face verification tasks can be viewed as metric learning problems, even though lots of face verification models are trained in classification schemes. It is possible when a large-margin strategy is introduced into the classification model to encourage intraclass variance minimization. As one alternative, angular softmax has been proposed to incorporate the margin. In this letter, we introduce another kind of margin to the softmax loss function, which is more intuitive and interpretable. Experiments on LFW and MegaFace show that our algorithm performs better when the evaluation criteria are designed for very low false alarm rate.

681 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 May 2019
TL;DR: This work presents a system that performs lengthy meta-learning on a large dataset of videos, and is able to frame few- and one-shot learning of neural talking head models of previously unseen people as adversarial training problems with high capacity generators and discriminators.
Abstract: Several recent works have shown how highly realistic human head images can be obtained by training convolutional neural networks to generate them. In order to create a personalized talking head model, these works require training on a large dataset of images of a single person. However, in many practical scenarios, such personalized talking head models need to be learned from a few image views of a person, potentially even a single image. Here, we present a system with such few-shot capability. It performs lengthy meta-learning on a large dataset of videos, and after that is able to frame few- and one-shot learning of neural talking head models of previously unseen people as adversarial training problems with high capacity generators and discriminators. Crucially, the system is able to initialize the parameters of both the generator and the discriminator in a person-specific way, so that training can be based on just a few images and done quickly, despite the need to tune tens of millions of parameters. We show that such an approach is able to learn highly realistic and personalized talking head models of new people and even portrait paintings.

294 citations


Cites methods from "ArcFace: Additive Angular Margin Lo..."

  • ...Namely, we use Frechet-inception distance (FID) [13], mostly measuring perceptual realism, structured similarity (SSIM) [39], measuring low-level similarity to the ground truth images, and cosine similarity (CSIM) between embedding vectors of the state-of-the-art face recognition network [9] for measuring identity mismatch (note that this network has quite different architecture from VGGFace used within content loss calculation during training)....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Jun 2019
TL;DR: An integrated OLTR algorithm is developed that maps an image to a feature space such that visual concepts can easily relate to each other based on a learned metric that respects the closed-world classification while acknowledging the novelty of the open world.
Abstract: Real world data often have a long-tailed and open-ended distribution. A practical recognition system must classify among majority and minority classes, generalize from a few known instances, and acknowledge novelty upon a never seen instance. We define Open Long-Tailed Recognition (OLTR) as learning from such naturally distributed data and optimizing the classification accuracy over a balanced test set which include head, tail, and open classes. OLTR must handle imbalanced classification, few-shot learning, and open-set recognition in one integrated algorithm, whereas existing classification approaches focus only on one aspect and deliver poorly over the entire class spectrum. The key challenges are how to share visual knowledge between head and tail classes and how to reduce confusion between tail and open classes. We develop an integrated OLTR algorithm that maps an image to a feature space such that visual concepts can easily relate to each other based on a learned metric that respects the closed-world classification while acknowledging the novelty of the open world. Our so-called dynamic meta-embedding combines a direct image feature and an associated memory feature, with the feature norm indicating the familiarity to known classes. On three large-scale OLTR datasets we curate from object-centric ImageNet, scene-centric Places, and face-centric MS1M data, our method consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art. Our code, datasets, and models enable future OLTR research and are publicly available at \url{https://liuziwei7.github.io/projects/LongTail.html}.

251 citations


Cites methods from "ArcFace: Additive Angular Margin Lo..."

  • ...MS1M-LT: To create a long-tailed version of the MS1MArcFace dataset [14, 8], we sample images for each identity with a probability proportional to the image numbers of each identity....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
14 Jun 2020
Abstract: Facial image manipulation has achieved great progress in recent years. However, previous methods either operate on a predefined set of face attributes or leave users little freedom to interactively manipulate images. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a novel framework termed MaskGAN, enabling diverse and interactive face manipulation. Our key insight is that semantic masks serve as a suitable intermediate representation for flexible face manipulation with fidelity preservation. MaskGAN has two main components: 1) Dense Mapping Network (DMN) and 2) Editing Behavior Simulated Training (EBST). Specifically, DMN learns style mapping between a free-form user modified mask and a target image, enabling diverse generation results. EBST models the user editing behavior on the source mask, making the overall framework more robust to various manipulated inputs. Specifically, it introduces dual-editing consistency as the auxiliary supervision signal. To facilitate extensive studies, we construct a large-scale high-resolution face dataset with fine-grained mask annotations named CelebAMask-HQ. MaskGAN is comprehensively evaluated on two challenging tasks: attribute transfer and style copy, demonstrating superior performance over other state-of-the-art methods. The code, models, and dataset are available at https://github.com/switchablenorms/CelebAMask-HQ.

240 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: A robust single-stage face detector, named RetinaFace, which performs pixel-wise face localisation on various scales of faces by taking advantages of joint extra-supervised and self-super supervised multi-task learning.
Abstract: Though tremendous strides have been made in uncontrolled face detection, accurate and efficient face localisation in the wild remains an open challenge. This paper presents a robust single-stage face detector, named RetinaFace, which performs pixel-wise face localisation on various scales of faces by taking advantages of joint extra-supervised and self-supervised multi-task learning. Specifically, We make contributions in the following five aspects: (1) We manually annotate five facial landmarks on the WIDER FACE dataset and observe significant improvement in hard face detection with the assistance of this extra supervision signal. (2) We further add a self-supervised mesh decoder branch for predicting a pixel-wise 3D shape face information in parallel with the existing supervised branches. (3) On the WIDER FACE hard test set, RetinaFace outperforms the state of the art average precision (AP) by 1.1% (achieving AP equal to 91.4%). (4) On the IJB-C test set, RetinaFace enables state of the art methods (ArcFace) to improve their results in face verification (TAR=89.59% for FAR=1e-6). (5) By employing light-weight backbone networks, RetinaFace can run real-time on a single CPU core for a VGA-resolution image. Extra annotations and code have been made available at: this https URL.

233 citations


Cites background or methods from "ArcFace: Additive Angular Margin Lo..."

  • ...The results on CFP-FP, demonstrate that RetinaFace can boost ArcFace’s verification accuracy from 98.37% to 99.49%....

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  • ...ArcFace [11] studied how different aspects in the training process of a deep convolutional neural network (i....

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  • ...expression [64] and age [38]) and facial identity recognition [45, 31, 55, 11]....

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  • ...• On the IJB-C dataset, RetinaFace helps to improve ArcFace’s [11] verification accuracy (with TAR equal to 89....

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  • ...Methods LFW CFP-FP AgeDB-30 MTCNN+ArcFace [11] 99....

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Proceedings Article
Sergey Ioffe1, Christian Szegedy1
06 Jul 2015
TL;DR: Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin.
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Posted Content
TL;DR: The TensorFlow interface and an implementation of that interface that is built at Google are described, which has been used for conducting research and for deploying machine learning systems into production across more than a dozen areas of computer science and other fields.
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9,253 citations