Abstract: The results of macroscopic, microscopic, and metallographic studies of archaeological metal objects from the Delta of the Parana River (Argentina, South America) are presented. The aim of these studies was to determine the chemical composition and the manufacturing techniques of these allochthonous objects frequently placed in human burials. The results were discussed taking into account archaeological and ethnohistorical information in order to understand the significance of metals and the indigenous routes to the Parana River. We concluded that the metal pendants and beads recovered in the Parana Delta were manufactured from copper by casting in open moulds and hammering. Finished metal objects reached the Parana River as a result of exchange circuits involving transport across pre-Hispanic routes from the production centres in the Andes. Metal objects from distant geographical areas were used to mark social ranks within the groups and were symbols of prestige displayed by local leaders.
Abstract: Rivers are known to play a role in human subsistence, economic, transport, and communication dynamics in many regions of the world. However, there has been little systematic investigation of how landscape features such as rivers might structure cultural transmission, such that this has a direct influence on cross-community patterns of artifactual variation. Here, we statistically explore the influence of river networks on patterns of inter-community material culture variation by utilizing spatial, linguistic, and material culture data from linguistically diverse peoples of the Upper Amazon region, using an ethnographic dataset recorded during the early twentieth century. When the geographic (“straight line”) distances among groups were controlled for, our statistical analysis found no relationship between inter-group material culture patterns and linguistic variation. We did, however, find a statistical relationship between the geographic distances among ethnolinguistic groups and their overall similarity as measured by material culture. This suggests that geographic distance is a more important factor in influencing pathways of cultural transmission among groups than language across the region. Most importantly, however, our analysis also found a significant relationship between riverine distances among ethnolinguistic groups and their material culture patterns. This relationship remained statistically significant even when taking both language variation and geographic (straight line) distances into account. Hence, this result strongly supports the hypothesis that rivers are having an influence on pathways of cultural transmission, and that they ultimately contribute to the structure of material culture patterns observed across the region. Accordingly, river distances and other landscape features may need to be more closely considered in archaeological studies when attempting to understand cultural transmission pathways influencing the spatial distribution of artifactual variation across communities.
Abstract: El registro de Canis familiaris en contextos arqueologicos resulta cada vez mas frecuente en Sudamerica. En este escenario, este trabajo discute su rol economico y social dentro de las sociedades indigenas prehispanicas. Se presentan nuevos hallazgos de perros procedentes de cinco sitios arqueologicos del Noreste argentino. La muestra estudiada incluye siete especimenes craneales y uno poscraneal correspondientes a individuos jovenes y adultos, de tamanos medianos (13-23 kg). Algunos de los especimenes presentan huellas de corte y marcas de carnivoros. Tres nuevas fechas taxon ubican a la muestra entre aproximadamente 2500 y 900 cal aP. Se concluye que C. familiaris presenta edades y tamanos ligeramente mayores a los registrados previamente. Asimismo, la evidencia antropica indica procesamiento y consumo de esta especie. Las dataciones extienden el rango cronologico conocido previamente para este taxon en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Su presencia se vincula a cazadores-recolectores-pescadores y horticultores, con una marcada adaptacion fluvial durante el Holoceno tardio.
Cites background from "Archaeometallurgy in the Paraná Del..."
...…pudo darse por contacto con la región andina meridional o el centro-norte de Argentina, como es el caso, por ejemplo, de las láminas de metal, las llamas, y los cóndores o las estatuillas antropomorfas representadas en cerámica (e.g., Bonomo et al. 2017; Castro 2017; Politis y Pedrotta 2006)....
Abstract: The Elamite period (ca. 3000 to 640 BC) hosts one of the earliest kingdoms to arise on the Iranian Plateau, and its metallurgy displays significant technical and industrial sophistication in comparison with the prehistoric period industries in other regions of Iran. This paper presents results of an analytical study of different metallurgical materials from the important Middle Elamite site of Haft Tappeh (ca. 1400 BC), including slags, metallic ingots/prills and objects. The samples were analysed by chemical and microanalytical methods including, ICP-OES, SEM-EDS, WD-XRF, EPMA and thin section petrography. Based on the results, the primary copper smelting process applied at Haft Tappeh was a partially incomplete smelting process that may be interpreted as a two-step procedure, including partial smelting of copper from sulphidic ores leading to matte production and refining the copper ingots/prills to obtain metallic copper. Also, the cementation of copper and cassiterite was the main process used to make tin bronze ingots/prills; however, for producing bronze, the ancient Elamite metalworkers might have known the direct smelting of mixed copper-tin ores as well. A third technique used at Haft Tappeh was the manufacturing of different, small objects made of impure copper and/or tin bronze. Thus, it is probable to introduce the copper-base metallurgy in Haft Tappeh as three main stages including copper smelting from sulphidic copper ores, the refining of early copper ingots/prills and production of tin bronze in different ways.
Abstract: In this chapter, the economic and symbolic relations between animals and pre-Hispanic indigenous people from the Middle and Lower Parana River of Argentina, South America are discussed. This issue is approached throughout the analyses of pottery zoomorphic appendages, which represent birds, mammals, reptiles and mollusks, and are assigned to the Goya-Malabrigo archaeological entity (~2000 14C yrs BP to seventeenth century). These appendages have realistic morphological details that allowed taxonomic identification at class, order, family, genus or species level. These pottery representations of the animals are contrasted with the faunal remains from the Goya-Malabrigo archaeological sites. The combination of these different information sources shows that the preys that were regularly eaten were not depicted in the appendages, and that the nutritional role of animals was not favored in these representations. The present study allows a discussion about the human-animal interrelation, which in turn contributes to global theoretical approaches, related to the humanization of nature.
Abstract: Durante fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX tuvieron lugar varias exploraciones y excavaciones en sitios arqueologicos del humedal del Parana inferior, originando en consecuencia un gran acervo de materiales bioarqueologicos, entre otros, depositados hoy en dia en el Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata y en el Museo Etnografico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Si bien algunos de los resultados derivados de aquellos trabajos de campo fueron publicados, otros permanecen ineditos. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer algunas caracteristicas de dichas colecciones bioarqueologicas a traves del analisis de 252 individuos que las conforman. En este sentido, procedimos a la determinacion sexual y estimacion etaria de la muestra y al registro de variables tafonomicas, este ultimo con el fin de poder identificar el posible contexto de inhumacion de donde provienen dichos individuos. A partir de este analisis y siguiendo los datos publicados se discriminaron entre inhumaciones en contacto directo con la tierra o en urnas. A su vez, se dio cuenta de una segmentacion espacial en base a categorias de sexo y edad para algunos sitios, como asi tambien de la presencia de adornos personales de metal, ocre y marcas de corte en algunos huesos. De esta manera, esperamos resaltar el valor que tienen las colecciones de museos como asi tambien contribuir y ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre las caracteristicas de las poblaciones prehispanicas de la region. Abstract At the end of the 19 th and beginning of the 20 th century several explorations and excavations took place in archaeological sites at the lower Parana wetland, giving rise, among others, to a vast body of bioarchaeological remains, currently deposited at the Museo de la Plata de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata and at the Museo Etnografico de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. While some of the results from those field works were published, others remain unknown. The aim of this paper is to report on some characteristics of these bioarchaeological collections through the analysis of the 252 individuals that comprise them. Thus, we proceeded to the sex determination and age estimation of the sample, and to the record of taphonomic variables; the latter with the purpose of identifying the possible burial context where these individuals came from. From this analysis, and following the data published, we distinguished between burials in direct contact with the ground or in urns. In turn, a spatial segmentation for some sites was also reported on the basis of age and gender categories, in addition to the presence of personal metal ornaments, ocher, and cut marks on some bones. In this way, we hope to emphasize the value of museum collections and to contribute to gaining further insights into some features of the pre-Hispanic populations in the region.
Abstract: Design theory provides a useful means for analyzing both practical and prestige technologies, although the goals and constraints of each are very different. The aggrandizer model of prestige technology postulates that prestige items were essential elements in aggrandizer strategies and that prestige items emerged only under conditions of sustainable food surpluses and included the most important innovations of the last 30,000 years such as metal working, pottery, sophisticated art, and domesticated plants and animals. The aggrandizer model also accounts for the transformation of some prestige technologies into practical technologies.
Abstract: Fil: Bonomo, Mariano. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico Conicet - La Plata; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Departamento Cientifico de Arqueologia; Argentina
Abstract: 1. Still a new world 2. A matter of time 3. The physical setting 4. The first peoples: 12,000-6000 BC 5. Settling down: 6000-3500 BC 6. The problem of maize 7. Cultural intensifications in the Andes: 3500-2000 BC 8. Ceramics: their origins and technology 9. The first civilizations: 2000-200 BC 10. Textiles: the high art of South America 11. Metallurgy 12. Regional diversification and development: 200 BC-AD 600 13. Iconographic studies 14. Militaristic and religious movements in the Andes: AD 500-900 15. Transport and trade 16. Kingdoms, chiefdoms and empires: AD 900-1438 17. The sixteenth century 18. Intercontinental movements before Columbus 19. The future of a continent Appendices.
Abstract: Long-distance exchange of exotic preciosities, while it can occur in any sociopolitical context, may be associated with both chiefly formation and state hegemony. In the south central Andes, shared stylistic elements in early complex societies of Paracas-Nasca on the Peruvian south coast and Pukara in the altiplano suggest their contact via intermediate areas. Unfortunately, interpretations of the interaction of these great traditions tend to neglect indigenous sociopolitical development in regions between the two culture areas. Recent systematic survey in one such intermediate region, Peru's Moquegua Valley, has shed light on an indigenous pre-Tiwanaku culture with distinctive regional settlement patterns, complex mortuary practices, and a local ceramic tradition known as Huaracane (385 cal B. C-cal A. D. 340). Surface collections and test excavations confirm a minimal presence of exotic Pukara and Paracas-Nasca ceramics and textiles in association with elite local residential contexts and a late Huaracane mortuary tradition known as “boot tombs” that appears after 170 cal B. C. As there is no general emulation of foreign styles, domestic activities, or practices, an agency-oriented local perspective is favored over globalist colonial or clientage models to explain the role of exotica in a climate of competitive sociopolitical development.
Abstract: My intention in this paper is to outline the main features and principal aspects of contact and exchange among the later prehistoric hunter–gatherers (late Mesolithic and post-Mesolithic) in the Baltic Sea basin, which covers the southern and eastern reaches of Northern Europe, and to summarise the main advances in current research. The area broadly covered includes the Baltic Sea basin that has provided effective routes for communication between the coastal regions surrounding the Baltic Sea, central Baltic islands, and regions further away in the north European Plain, inland regions of Fennoscandia and Russia that could be reached by an extensive network of major rivers and lakes. Effective transport for negotiating these routes both in the summer and winter existed already from the early Mesolithic. Goods moved along these routes included a wide range of artefacts discussed in the paper. Geographically, exchange was organised at three levels: regionally, inter-regionally, and over long distances. Each mode of exchange was probably organised along different lines socially, and each served to implement wide-ranging social strategies for the general purposes of social reproduction, mate exchange and biological reproduction, as well as the spread of innovations. In the concluding section, I discuss the nature of contacts and consequences of exchanges between the early farming communities and the hunter–gathering groups within the framework of the core-periphery relations.