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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-84300-Y

Archean continental crust formed by magma hybridization and voluminous partial melting.

04 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 5263-5263
Abstract: Archean (4.0-2.5 Ga) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terranes represent fragments of Earth's first continents that formed via high-grade metamorphism and partial melting of hydrated basaltic crust. While a range of geodynamic regimes can explain the production of TTG magmas, the processes by which they separated from their source and acquired distinctive geochemical signatures remain uncertain. This limits our understanding of how the continental crust internally differentiates, which in turn controls its potential for long-term stabilization as cratonic nuclei. Here, we show via petrological modeling that hydrous Archean mafic crust metamorphosed in a non-plate tectonic regime produces individual pulses of magma with major-, minor-, and trace-element signatures resembling-but not always matching-natural Archean TTGs. Critically, magma hybridization due to co-mingling and accumulation of multiple melt fractions during ascent through the overlying crust eliminates geochemical discrepancies identified when assuming that TTGs formed via crystallization of discrete melt pulses. We posit that much Archean continental crust is made of hybrid magmas that represent up to ~ 40 vol% of partial melts produced along thermal gradients of 50-100 °C/kbar, characteristic of overthickened mafic Archean crust at the head of a mantle plume, crustal overturns, or lithospheric peels.

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Topics: Continental crust (66%), Archean (57%), Crust (56%) ... read more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LITHOS.2021.106401
01 Nov 2021-Lithos
Abstract: We present regional variations of whole-rock Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios of magmatic rocks along the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar and Alborz magmatic belts, Iran. Both the magmatic belts are located at the north of the main Zagros Neo-Tethyan suture. The Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt (UDMB), which trends NW-SE for 1000 km across Iran, was characterized by the intensive volcanism and plutonism, and defined the magmatic front (MF) of the Zagros orogenic belt. The Alborz magmatic belt (AMB) is situated to the north, and characterized by less intense magmatic activity. The Alborz magmatic belt was formed behind it in the rear-arc (RA) domain. A striking feature of the both magmatic belts is the transition from normal calc-alkaline arc magmatism during the Eocene–Oligocene to adakite-like calc-alkaline magmatism during the Middle to Late Miocene–Pliocene. The late-Cenozoic magmatism of the UDMB and AMB shows higher Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N. However, it should be noted that crustal thickening event is intensive in the UDMB than AMB during Late Cenozoic. Using the composition of the Lale-Zar zircons from the SE UDMB we determined the oxygen fugacity (fO2) during zircon crystallization to be between FMQ (fayalite–magnetite–quartz buffer) -0.69 to +2.41, whereas those of the Hashroud-Teckmdash-Gormolla zircons from NW AMB range from −1.22 to +5.99. The fO2 estimates suggest relatively more oxidized conditions for the Late Cenozoic igneous rocks of the AMB. Compiled data from the UDMB and AMB intrusions show an increase in average zircon crystallization temperatures with decreasing age. These outcomes have been interpreted in terms of variation of the crustal thickness, from 30 to 35 km during Eocene-Oligocene to 40–55 km during the middle-late Miocene. We propose the increase in crustal thickness is associated with the collision between the Arabian plate and Iran and subsequent convergence during the middle-late Miocene.

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Topics: Plutonism (56%), Zircon (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LITHOS.2021.106535
11 Nov 2021-Lithos
Abstract: The Chah-Gaz and Mishdovan areas in the Bafq magmatic complex, central Iran, contain thick series of terrigenous sediments (the Rizu-Dezu complex), and arc-related calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous rocks. Geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from both areas indicate two distinct rock clans: (1) high-K, calc-alkaline-shoshonitic rocks with strong depletions in Nb, P, and Ti, and (2) an alkaline quartz gabbro-diorite, with trace element patterns resembling oceanic island basalts (OIB). New geochronological data reveal that magmatic rocks of both clans crystallized almost simultaneously, with zircon U Pb ages of 534 Ma and 537 Ma, respectively. The whole-rock Nd Sr isotopic data ((87Sr/86Sr)(I) = 0.7052 to 0.7064 and ɛNd(t) = +1.3 to +2.7) of alkaline quartz gabbro-diorite indicate an enriched OIB-like mantle source, while the high-K, calc-alkaline-shoshonitic rocks have eNd(t) = −5.5 to −7.6, clearly reflecting significant contributions from pre-existing Proterozoic basement. Apatite in both the Chah-Gaz and Mishdovan magmatic rocks is of magmatic origin, with light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment patterns. The low Sr/Y and Eu/Eu⁎ values in apatite demonstrate the non-adakitic character of the investigated rocks, while the moderately negative Eu anomaly and inverse correlation between δCe and δEu in the analyzed apatites may reflect reduced parental magmas. The geochemical and isotopic results presented here indicate that slab rollback and opening of an extensional basin could have initiated concurrent Cadomian arc-related calc-alkaline and rift-associated alkaline magmatism in the Chah-Gaz and Mishdovan areas.

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Topics: Petrogenesis (56%), Zircon (54%), Igneous rock (53%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PRECAMRES.2021.106448
Hugh Rollinson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper seeks to argue one simple point. That the diversity in chemical composition in Archaean granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suite (TTG) is primarily the product of crystal fractionation, specifically plagioclase and hornblende fractionation. If this is the case TTG compositions from a given suite can be reduced to the least fractionated samples which will represent the primary melt composition(s). There are two important implications of this proposal. (1) The subdivision of TTGs into high-, medium- and low-pressure types on the basis of their trace element concentrations may be an artefact of crystal fractionation, and (2) if hornblende fractionation is important in TTG genesis then this argues for an amphibolitic source rather than an eclogitic source and greatly simplifies the number of geodynamic options available in the genesis of TTG magmas. The argument is supported by two case studies from TTGs in the lower and middle crust of the Lewisian Complex, NW Scotland and the lower crust of the Northern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, Zimbabwe. In both case studies there is strong evidence to show that Archaean TTGs can experience significant hornblende and plagioclase fractionation. As a working rule therefore all TTG suites should be examined for the possible effects of fractional crystallisation and geochemical models for their origin should be based upon the least fractionated samples.

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Topics: Limpopo Belt (51%), Lewisian complex (51%), Hornblende (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2138/AM.2010.3371
Donna L. Whitney, Bernard W. Evans1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Nearly 30 years have elapsed since Kretz (1983) provided the mineralogical community with a systematized list of abbreviations for rock-forming minerals and mineral components. Its logic and simplicity have led to broad acceptance among authors and editors who were eager to adopt a widely recognized set of mineral symbols to save space in text, tables, and figures. Few of the nearly 5000 known mineral species occur in nature with a frequency sufficient to earn repeated mention in the geoscience literature and thus qualify for the designation “rock-forming mineral,” but a reasonable selection of the most common and useful rock-forming minerals likely numbers in the several hundreds. The original list by Kretz (1983) contained abbreviations for 193 of these. We propose an expansion to the list initiated by Kretz (1983) (see next page). Modest expansions and revisions were made by Spear …

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3,616 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1525-1314.2010.00923.X
Tim Holland1, Roger Powell2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The thermodynamic properties of 254 end-members, including 210 mineral end-members, 18 silicate liquid end-members and 26 aqueous fluid species are presented in a revised and updated internally consistent thermodynamic data set. The PVT properties of the data set phases are now based on a modified Tait equation of state (EOS) for the solids and the Pitzer & Sterner (1995) equation for gaseous components. Thermal expansion and compressibility are linked within the modified Tait EOS (TEOS) by a thermal pressure formulation using an Einstein temperature to model the temperature dependence of both the thermal expansion and bulk modulus in a consistent way. The new EOS has led to improved fitting of the phase equilibrium experiments. Many new end-members have been added, including several deep mantle phases and, for the first time, sulphur-bearing minerals. Silicate liquid end-members are in good agreement with both phase equilibrium experiments and measured heat of melting. The new dataset considerably enhances the capabilities for thermodynamic calculation on rocks, melts and aqueous fluids under crustal to deep mantle conditions. Implementations are already available in thermocalc to take advantage of the new data set and its methodologies, as illustrated by example calculations on sapphirine-bearing equilibria, sulphur-bearing equilibria and calculations to 300 kbar and 2000 °C to extend to lower mantle conditions.

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Topics: Tait equation (59%), Bulk modulus (51%), Compressibility (51%) ... read more

1,206 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00410-003-0464-Z
Tim Holland1, Roger Powell2Institutions (2)
Abstract: For petrological calculations, including geothermobarometry and the calculation of phase diagrams (for example, P–T petrogenetic grids and pseudosections), it is necessary to be able to express the activity–composition (a–x) relations of minerals, melt and fluid in multicomponent systems Although the symmetric formalism—a macroscopic regular model approach to a–x relations—is an easy-to-formulate, general way of doing this, the energetic relationships are a symmetric function of composition We allow asymmetric energetics to be accommodated via a simple extension to the symmetric formalism which turns it into a macroscopic van Laar formulation We term this the asymmetric formalism (ASF) In the symmetric formalism, the a–x relations are specified by an interaction energy for each of the constituent binaries amongst the independent set of end members used to represent the phase In the asymmetric formalism, there is additionally a "size parameter" for each of the end members in the independent set, with size parameter differences between end members accounting for asymmetry In the case of fluid mixtures, for example, H2O–CO2, the volumes of the end members as a function of pressure and temperature serve as the size parameters, providing an excellent fit to the a–x relations In the case of minerals and silicate liquid, the size parameters are empirical parameters to be determined along with the interaction energies as part of the calibration of the a–x relations In this way, we determine the a–x relations for feldspars in the systems KAlSi3O8–NaAlSi3O8 and KAlSi3O8–NaAlSi3O8–CaAl2Si2O8, for carbonates in the system CaCO3–MgCO3, for melt in the melting relationships involving forsterite, protoenstatite and cristobalite in the system Mg2SiO4–SiO2, as well as for fluids in the system H2O–CO2 In each case the a–x relations allow the corresponding, experimentally determined phase diagrams to be reproduced faithfully The asymmetric formalism provides a powerful and flexible way of handling a–x relations of complex phases in multicomponent systems for petrological calculations

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933 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-019-09213-X
Abstract: During its approach to asteroid (101955) Bennu, NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft surveyed Bennu’s immediate environment, photometric properties, and rotation state. Discovery of a dusty environment, a natural satellite, or unexpected asteroid characteristics would have had consequences for the mission’s safety and observation strategy. Here we show that spacecraft observations during this period were highly sensitive to satellites (sub-meter scale) but reveal none, although later navigational images indicate that further investigation is needed. We constrain average dust production in September 2018 from Bennu’s surface to an upper limit of 150 g s–1 averaged over 34 min. Bennu’s disk-integrated photometric phase function validates measurements from the pre-encounter astronomical campaign. We demonstrate that Bennu’s rotation rate is accelerating continuously at 3.63 ± 0.52 × 10–6 degrees day–2, likely due to the Yarkovsky–O’Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack (YORP) effect, with evolutionary implications.

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Topics: Asteroid (53%)

871 Citations


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