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Journal ArticleDOI

Are IQ Scores Valid for Children Who Are Poor Readers

01 Dec 1993-Psychological Assessment (American Psychological Association)-Vol. 5, Iss: 4, pp 400-407

Abstract: Remedial services for children with reading problems are often allocated according to discrepancies between reading and IQ scores. Results of some recent research suggest, however, that IQ scores of poor readers do not covary with their levels of functioning in other cognitive domains. This study evaluated whether the external validity of IQ scores (from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised) was moderated by reading levels within 2 separate samples of referred children. We found that IQ scores had expected correlations with external measures of verbal, visual-spatial, short-term memory, and arithmetic ability, and that these relations were invariant across levels of reading skill. Many school-age children have reading difficulties, but only some may be classified as reading disabled, which indicates a discrepancy between specific reading proficiency and general cognitive ability. Children so classified may be eligible for general learning disability services or for more specialized programs for the reading disabled. Poor readers who do not meet ability-achievement discrepancy definitions of reading disability may receive other remedial services but, in some instances, may receive none at all. For example, poor readers with IQ scores in the borderline range (e.g., 70-79 on Wechsler scales) may be ineligible for special education services because they are considered to be "slow learners." Poor readers with even lower IQ scores (e.g., 60-69), however, may be eligible for placement in classrooms for the educable mentally impaired, where they may at least receive more individual attention than "slow learners" who remain in regular classrooms. Considering the implications for children's educational careers, it is crucial to demonstrate the validity of allocating special education resources on the basis of discrepancies between reading and general ability levels. There have been two types of criticisms about this method of allocation, however, the second of which provides the main focus of this study. First, as with the broader notion of learning disability, there are numerous conceptual and statistical problems with the operational definition of "significant" ability-reading discrepancies (e.g., see Kamphaus, Frick, & Lahey, 1991; Reynolds, 1984-1985). Second, there has been much debate about whether IQ tests provide valid estimates of general cognitive capacity for children with reading problems. For example, some researchers have argued that poor readers may obtain artificially low IQ scores because
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2007-Intelligence
Abstract: There has been considerable debate regarding the causal precedence of intelligence and academic achievement. Some researchers view intelligence and achievement as identical constructs. Others believe that the relationship between intelligence and achievement is reciprocal. Still others assert that intelligence is causally related to achievement. The present study addressed this debate with a cross-lagged panel analysis of WISC-III and achievement test scores of 289 students assessed for special education eligibility with a test–retest interval of 2.8 years. The optimal IQ–achievement model reflected the causal precedence of IQ on achievement. That is, the paths from IQ scores at time 1 to IQ and achievement scores at time 2 were significant whereas the paths from achievement scores at time 1 to IQ scores at time 2 were not significant. Within the limits imposed by the design and sample, it appears that psychometric IQ is a causal influence on future achievement measures whereas achievement measures do not substantially influence future IQ scores.

167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC ; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 1983a, 1983b) was published just over 10 years ago, it had many unique features, including its information processing model and specific recommendations for educational remediation. Although the test has received much attention because of these characteristics, the K-ABC has also been the subject of much controversy. Through consideration of some of these arguments, lessons that researchers in the field of child assessment may learn from the K-ABC and their implications for future directions are identified. Based in part on lessons learned from the K-ABC, an alternative assessment model for the evaluation of children with reading problems is proposed at the end of this article.

20 citations


David Thomas Lauret1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1998-
Abstract: ....................................................................................................................... iii List of Tables .............................................................................................................. viii List of Figures ................................................................................................................ x Chapter

7 citations


References
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Reference EntryDOI
11 Jun 2013-

113,026 citations


Book
Jacob Cohen1Institutions (1)
01 Dec 1969-
Abstract: Contents: Prefaces. The Concepts of Power Analysis. The t-Test for Means. The Significance of a Product Moment rs (subscript s). Differences Between Correlation Coefficients. The Test That a Proportion is .50 and the Sign Test. Differences Between Proportions. Chi-Square Tests for Goodness of Fit and Contingency Tables. The Analysis of Variance and Covariance. Multiple Regression and Correlation Analysis. Set Correlation and Multivariate Methods. Some Issues in Power Analysis. Computational Procedures.

103,911 citations


"Are IQ Scores Valid for Children Wh..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Reported in Table 2d, which indicates mean differences in standard deviation units; Cohen, 1977) across the external measures....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Peter A. Lachenbruch1Institutions (1)

45,865 citations


"Are IQ Scores Valid for Children Wh..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Reported in Table 2 are group mean scores and results of significance tests and effect size indexes (Cohen's d, which indicates mean differences in standard deviation units; Cohen, 1977) across the external measures....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Keith E. Stanovich1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A framework for conceptualizing the development of individual differences in reading ability is presented that synthesizes a great deal of the research literature. The framework places special emph...

4,897 citations


Book
01 Jul 1992-
Abstract: Course Description Child Assessment serves as an introductory graduate course to the principles and theories of the assessment of children. Throughout the semester you will be exposed to numerous theories of assessment and domains of assessment. Additionally, you will develop basic competency in many of these areas through experiential tasks (e.g., administering and scoring an intelligence test). There is no widely accepted “right” assessment; however, there are better and worse assessments for individuals and problems. At the end of the course, you should be prepared to continue honing your assessment skills in future iterations of your training. Please note that this syllabus is a tentative schedule of the course and may change as the semester progresses.

2,119 citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20071
19981
19961