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Journal ArticleDOI

Aren’t I A Woman? Deconstructing Sex Discrimination and Freeing Transgender Women From Solitary Confinement

01 Jan 2016-FIU Law Review (Florida International University)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 117
About: This article is published in FIU Law Review.The article was published on 2016-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 2 citations till now.

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09 Oct 2020-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: It is found that solitary confinement is associated not just with mental, but also with physical health problems, and given the disproportionate use of solitary among incarcerated people of color, these symptoms are most likely to affect those populations.
Abstract: We examine how solitary confinement correlates with self-reported adverse physical health outcomes, and how such outcomes extend the understanding of the health disparities associated with incarceration. Using a mixed methods approach, we find that solitary confinement is associated not just with mental, but also with physical health problems. Given the disproportionate use of solitary among incarcerated people of color, these symptoms are most likely to affect those populations. Drawing from a random sample of prisoners (n = 106) in long-term solitary confinement in the Washington State Department of Corrections in 2017, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) assessments; and systematic reviews of medical and disciplinary files for these subjects. We also conducted a paper survey of the entire long-term solitary confinement population (n = 225 respondents) and analyzed administrative data for the entire population of prisoners in the state in 2017 (n = 17,943). Results reflect qualitative content and descriptive statistical analysis. BPRS scores reflect clinically significant somatic concerns in 15% of sample. Objective specification of medical conditions is generally elusive, but that, itself, is a highly informative finding. Using subjective reports, we specify and analyze a range of physical symptoms experienced in solitary confinement: (1) skin irritations and weight fluctuation associated with the restrictive conditions of solitary confinement; (2) un-treated and mis-treated chronic conditions associated with the restrictive policies of solitary confinement; (3) musculoskeletal pain exacerbated by both restrictive conditions and policies. Administrative data analyses reveal disproportionate rates of racial/ethnic minorities in solitary confinement. This analysis raises the stakes for future studies to evaluate comparative prevalence of objective medical diagnoses and potential causal mechanisms for the physical symptoms specified here, and for understanding differential use of solitary confinement and its medically harmful sequelae.

21 citations


Cites background from "Aren’t I A Woman? Deconstructing Se..."

  • ...Though we do not explore other risk factors for over-representation in solitary confinement in this paper, we and others have documented serious mental illness [20, 80], transgender identification [81], and pregnant women [82] as particularly vulnerable to both incarceration and solitary confinement, suggesting additional sub-groups who might face disproportionate and unique risks of physical health problems in solitary confinement....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , N.nan et al. presented a method to solve the problem of homonymity.http://www.nannan.edu.edu/blog/blogs/
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TL;DR: The distinction between'sex' and 'gender' is challenged by arguments that "sex" is equally a social construction, initiating a self-reflexive effort to return feminism to its foundational grounding as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The distinction between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ is challenged by arguments that ‘sex’ is equally a social construction, initiating a selfreflexive effort to return feminism to its foundational grounding...

152 citations