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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10051051

Arginase 1 ( Arg1 ) as an Up-Regulated Gene in COVID-19 Patients: A Promising Marker in COVID-19 Immunopathy.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Clinical Medicine (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI))-Vol. 10, Iss: 5, pp 1051
Abstract: Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic. It is well-established that SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to dysregulated immune responses. Arginase-1 (Arg1), which has a pivotal role in immune cells, can be expressed in most of the myeloid cells, e.g., neutrophils and macrophages. Arg1 has been associated with the suppression of antiviral immune responses. Methods: Whole blood was taken from 21 COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy individuals, and after RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, gene expression of Arg1 was measured by real-time PCR. Results: The qPCR results showed that the expression of Arg1 was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.01). The relative expression analysis demonstrated there were approximately 2.3 times increased Arg1 expression in the whole blood of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a considerable diagnostic value for Arg1 expression in COVID-19 (p = 0.0002 and AUC = 0.8401). Conclusion: Arg1 might be a promising marker in the pathogenesis of the disease, and it could be a valuable diagnostic tool.

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Topics: Immune system (53%), Pathogenesis (52%), Gene expression (52%) ... show more
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.695972
Abstract: COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic in 35% of cases to severe in 20% of patients. Differences in the type and degree of inflammation appear to determine the severity of the disease. Recent reports show an increase in circulating monocytic-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC) in severe COVID 19 that deplete arginine but are not associated with respiratory complications. Our data shows that differences in the type, function and transcriptome of granulocytic-MDSC (G-MDSC) may in part explain the severity COVID-19, in particular the association with pulmonary complications. Large infiltrates by Arginase 1+ G-MDSC (Arg+G-MDSC), expressing NOX-1 and NOX-2 (important for production of reactive oxygen species) were found in the lungs of patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Increased circulating Arg+G-MDSC depleted arginine, which impaired T cell receptor and endothelial cell function. Transcriptomic signatures of G-MDSC from patients with different stages of COVID-19, revealed that asymptomatic patients had increased expression of pathways and genes associated with type I interferon (IFN), while patients with severe COVID-19 had increased expression of genes associated with arginase production, and granulocyte degranulation and function. These results suggest that asymptomatic patients develop a protective type I IFN response, while patients with severe COVID-19 have an increased inflammatory response that depletes arginine, impairs T cell and endothelial cell function, and causes extensive pulmonary damage. Therefore, inhibition of arginase-1 and/or replenishment of arginine may be important in preventing/treating severe COVID-19.

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Topics: Arginase (59%), T cell (53%), Arginine (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.18.440366
Sarthak Sinha1, Nicole L. Rosin1, Rohit Arora1, Elodie Labit1  +10 moreInstitutions (2)
19 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), death and long-term sequelae. Innate immune cells are critical for host defense but are also the primary drivers of ARDS. The relationships between innate cellular responses in ARDS resulting from COVID-19 compared to other causes of ARDS, such as bacterial sepsis is unclear. Moreover, the beneficial effects of dexamethasone therapy during severe COVID-19 remain speculative, but understanding the mechanistic effects could improve evidence-based therapeutic interventions. To interrogate these relationships, we developed an scRNA-Seq and plasma proteomics atlas (biernaskielab.ca/COVID_neutrophil). We discovered that compared to bacterial ARDS, COVID-19 was associated with distinct neutrophil polarization characterized by either interferon (IFN) or prostaglandin (PG) active states. Neutrophils from bacterial ARDS had higher expression of antibacterial molecules such as PLAC8 and CD83. Dexamethasone therapy in COVID patients rapidly altered the IFNactive state, downregulated interferon responsive genes, and activated IL1R2+ve neutrophils. Dexamethasone also induced the emergence of immature neutrophils expressing immunosuppressive molecules ARG1 and ANXA1, which were not present in healthy controls. Moreover, dexamethasone remodeled global cellular interactions by changing neutrophils from information receivers into information providers. Importantly, male patients had higher proportions of IFNactive neutrophils, a greater degree of steroid-induced immature neutrophil expansion, and increased mortality benefit compared to females in the dexamethasone era. Indeed, the highest proportion of IFNactive neutrophils was associated with mortality. These results define neutrophil states unique to COVID-19 when contextualized to other life-threatening infections, thereby enhancing the relevance of our findings at the bedside. Furthermore, the molecular benefits of dexamethasone therapy are also defined, and the identified pathways and plasma proteins can now be targeted to develop improved therapeutics.

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Topics: ARDS (52%), Innate immune system (51%), Dexamethasone (51%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.30.454529
01 Aug 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Clinical and hyperinflammatory overlap between COVID-19 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has been reported. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that COVID-19 and HLH have an overlap of signaling pathways and gene signatures commonly dysregulated, which were defined by investigating the transcriptomes of 1253 subjects (controls, COVID-19, and HLH patients) using microarray, bulk RNA-sequencing (RNAseq), and single-cell RNAseq (scRNAseq). COVID-19 and HLH share pathways involved in cytokine and chemokine signaling as well as neutrophil-mediated immune responses that associate with COVID-19 severity. These genes are dysregulated at protein level across several COVID-19 studies and form an interconnected network with differentially expressed plasma proteins which converge to neutrophil hyperactivation in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. scRNAseq analysis indicated that these genes are specifically upregulated across different leukocyte populations, including lymphocyte subsets and immature neutrophils. Artificial intelligence modeling confirmed the strong association of these genes with COVID-19 severity. Thus, our work indicates putative therapeutic pathways for intervention.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JMV.27093
Xin Gao, Yuan Liu1, Shaohui Zou1, Pengqin Liu  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global epidemic disease caused by a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing serious adverse effects on human health. In this study, we obtained a blood leukocytes sequencing data set of COVID-19 patients from the GEO database and obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We further analyzed these DEGs by protein-protein interaction analysis and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and identified the DEGs closely related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Then, we constructed a six-gene model (comprising IFIT3, OASL, USP18, XAF1, IFI27, and EPSTI1) by logistic regression analysis and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The AUC values of the training group, testing group, and entire group were 0.930, 0.914, and 0.921, respectively. The six genes were highly expressed in patients with COVID-19 and positively correlated with the expression of SARS-CoV-2 invasion-related genes (ACE2, TMPRSS2, CTSB, and CTSL). The risk score calculated by this model was also positively correlated with the expression of TMPRSS2, CTSB, and CTSL, indicating that the six genes were closely related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, we comprehensively analyzed the functions of DEGs in the blood leukocytes of patients with COVID-19 and constructed a six-gene model that may contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic ideas for COVID-19. Moreover, these six genes may be therapeutic targets for COVID-19.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13113951
05 Nov 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: l-Arginine is involved in many different biological processes and recent reports indicate that it could also play a crucial role in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we present an updated systematic overview of the current evidence on the functional contribution of L-Arginine in COVID-19, describing its actions on endothelial cells and the immune system and discussing its potential as a therapeutic tool, emerged from recent clinical experimentations.

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Topics: Coronavirus (55%)

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35 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Chaolin Huang1, Yeming Wang2, Xingwang Li3, Lili Ren4  +25 moreInstitutions (8)
24 Jan 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not.

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26,390 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/GR.1239303
Paul Shannon1, Andrew Markiel, Owen Ozier, Nitin S. Baliga  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Nov 2003-Genome Research
Abstract: Cytoscape is an open source software project for integrating biomolecular interaction networks with high-throughput expression data and other molecular states into a unified conceptual framework. Although applicable to any system of molecular components and interactions, Cytoscape is most powerful when used in conjunction with large databases of protein-protein, protein-DNA, and genetic interactions that are increasingly available for humans and model organisms. Cytoscape's software Core provides basic functionality to layout and query the network; to visually integrate the network with expression profiles, phenotypes, and other molecular states; and to link the network to databases of functional annotations. The Core is extensible through a straightforward plug-in architecture, allowing rapid development of additional computational analyses and features. Several case studies of Cytoscape plug-ins are surveyed, including a search for interaction pathways correlating with changes in gene expression, a study of protein complexes involved in cellular recovery to DNA damage, inference of a combined physical/functional interaction network for Halobacterium, and an interface to detailed stochastic/kinetic gene regulatory models.

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Topics: Interaction network (60%), ConsensusPathDB (55%), Human interactome (53%) ... show more

23,868 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X
Zhe Xu1, Lei Shi1, Yijin Wang, Ji-Yuan Zhang1  +14 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: bPortuguese Abstract:O surto do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) em Wuhan, China, iniciado em dezembro de 2019, evoluiu para se tornar uma pandemia global A

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5,215 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EBIOM.2020.102763
Jing Liu1, Sumeng Li1, Jia Liu1, Boyun Liang1  +49 moreInstitutions (2)
01 May 2020-EBioMedicine
Abstract: Background The dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines profiles of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their correlation with the disease severity remain unclear. Methods Peripheral blood samples were longitudinally collected from 40 confirmed COVID-19 patients and examined for lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry and cytokine profiles by specific immunoassays. Findings Of the 40 COVID-19 patients enrolled, 13 severe cases showed significant and sustained decreases in lymphocyte counts [0·6 (0·6-0·8)] but increases in neutrophil counts [4·7 (3·6-5·8)] than 27 mild cases [1.1 (0·8-1·4); 2·0 (1·5-2·9)]. Further analysis demonstrated significant decreases in the counts of T cells, especially CD8+ T cells, as well as increases in IL-6, IL-10, IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in the peripheral blood in the severe cases compared to those in the mild cases. T cell counts and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 patients who survived the disease gradually recovered at later time points to levels that were comparable to those of the mild cases. Moreover, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (AUC=0·93) and neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratio (N8R) (AUC =0·94) were identified as powerful prognostic factors affecting the prognosis for severe COVID-19. Interpretation The degree of lymphopenia and a proinflammatory cytokine storm is higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in mild cases, and is associated with the disease severity. N8R and NLR may serve as a useful prognostic factor for early identification of severe COVID-19 cases. Funding The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Science and Technology Major Project, the Health Commission of Hubei Province, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and the Medical Faculty of the University of Duisburg-Essen and Stiftung Universitaetsmedizin, Hospital Essen, Germany.

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Topics: Cytokine release syndrome (56%), Lymphocyte (53%), T cell (51%)

814 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4505
15 Apr 2005-Cancer Research
Abstract: Myeloid suppressor cells with high arginase activity are found in tumors and spleen of mice with colon and lung cancer. These cells, described as macrophages or immature dendritic cells, deplete arginine and impair T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Although arginase activity has been described in cancer patients, it is thought to originate from tumor cells metabolizing arginine to ornithine needed to sustain rapid cell proliferation. The goal of this study was to determine whether myeloid suppressor cells producing high arginase existed in renal cell carcinoma patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 123 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, prior to treatment, were found to have a significantly increased arginase activity. These patients had a markedly decreased cytokine production and expressed low levels of T cell receptor CD3zeta chain. Cell separation studies showed that the increased arginase activity was limited to a specific subset of CD11b+, CD14-, CD15+ cells with a polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology and markers, instead of macrophages or dendritic cells described in mouse models. Furthermore, these patients had low levels of arginine and high levels of ornithine in plasma. Depletion of the CD11b+, CD14- myeloid suppressor cells reestablished T cell proliferation and CD3zeta chain expression. These results showed, for the first time, the existence of suppressor myeloid cells producing arginase in human cancer patients. In addition, it supports the concept that blocking arginase may be an important step in the success of immunotherapy.

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Topics: Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell (67%), Arginase (66%), T cell (60%) ... show more

790 Citations