Armed self defense: The Canadian case
01 Jan 1999-Journal on firearms and public policy (Second Amendment Foundation)-Vol. 11
TL;DR: For instance, this article found that between 60,000 and 80,000 times per year, Canadian adults use a firearm to defend themselves against human threats from dangerous people or animals.
Abstract: There is a vigorous debate over the frequency with which private citizens resort to the use of firearms for self defense. No information has been previously available about how often firearms are used defensively outside of the United States. This paper estimates the frequency with which firearms are used for self protection by analyzing three telephone surveys of the general public in Canada and a fourth survey of the general public in the United States. Canadians report using firearms to protect themselves between 60,000 and 80,000 times per year from dangerous people or animals. Between 19,000 and 37,500 of these incidents involve defense against human threats. The results of the American survey confirm estimates about the frequency firearms are used for self protection in the United States (Kleck 1988, 1991). In comparison with the number of households with firearms, the frequency with which Canadians use firearms to defend themselves against human threats is somewhat less than that of Americans. Policy makers in both the United States and in Canada should be aware the private ownership of firearms has benefits as well as costs for society. Firearms bans may cost more lives than they save.
01 Oct 2012
TL;DR: The authors examined the relationship between agenda setting and frames analysis in Canadian federal politics from 2004-2011 and found that the prime minister retained the final executive decision on party and government political communications and was, therefore, the leading arbiter of the messages delivered to represent key party agenda-setting strategies.
Abstract: This dissertation examines the relationship between agenda setting and frames analysis in Canadian federal politics from 2004-2011. The research project tests Savoie’s thesis that the centralization of power has grown with the increasing size of the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) and that the leader of the office has most clearly exerted that power in controlling the government’s agenda by applying it to the experience of minority government at the dawn of the 21st century. To test his thesis, textual analyses of the PMO’s agenda-setting documents were conducted to identify the key language, frames, and controlled policy announcements that were reflected within the political discourse. How does the discourse represent and reflect the shift in power in a dramatically changed political environment when, at least in theory, a minority government would be at the mercy of the opposition parties that hold the balance of power? From 2006 to 2011, the Harper Conservatives stayed in power by cleverly manipulating the agenda through framing and reframing issues to their advantage. The prime minister retained the final executive decision on party and government political communications and was, therefore, the leading arbiter of the messages delivered to represent key party agenda-setting strategies. Harper has often been identified as a shrewd strategist by academics and the media alike, but how different were his agenda-setting techniques compared to previous minority government strategies? This research identifies the communication tactics that the PMO used in 2006 to ensure its unique five key policy frames of “accountability”, “child care tax credits”, “cutting the GST”, “patient wait time guarantees”, and “tough on crime” were consistently delivered and coordinated across media in their platforms, websites, speeches, and outlays. The Harper Conservatives’ new strategies included narrowing agendas, promoting wedge issues, priming voters using distracter frames, and using strict media communication protocols to attract popular support from the key segment of middle-class families. Using these tactics, the government set the agenda on the dismantling of the firearms registry, framed the skills and motivations of two opposition leaders as ineffective and weak with attack advertisements, and sold the illusion that coalition governments were undemocratic.
TL;DR: This paper used conjunctive analysis to examine the contextual factors associated with the use of a firearm by crime victims as a means of self-defense and identify the situational factors most closely associated with instances where the self-defensive use of firearm is most and least effective.
Abstract: As a means for analyzing categorical data, conjunctive analysis is an emerging analytic approach used in both exploratory and confirmatory research. This technique is applied in the current study to examine two important issues related to the use of firearms as a means of self-defense by crime victims. Using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, the current study uses conjunctive analysis (a) to examine the contextual factors associated with the use of a firearm by crime victims as a means of self-defense and (b) to identify the situational factors most closely associated with instances where the self-defensive use of a firearm is most and least effective. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors look to the founding fragment analytical tradition in search of an explanation for America's unique relationship with guns, reviewing key aspects of gun control policy and gun-related culture in the USA and four other Anglo-American societies: Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand.
Abstract: This article looks to the founding fragment analytical tradition in search of an explanation for America's unique relationship with guns, reviewing key aspects of gun control policy and gun-related culture in the USA and four other Anglo-American societies: Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand. The discussion that follows argues that only contributors to the fragment tradition that identify considerable differentiation between the USA and Canada can plausibly explain the former's relationship with guns. Finally, the conclusion argues that it was the American Revolution's amplification of the effects of ideological fragmentation from Europe that best explains the American gun exception.
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focused on the rise of e-Government services around the world, and specifically considered Libya as an example on its efforts and challenges with respect to implementing an eGovernment services initiative.
Abstract: This study focuses on the rise of e-Government services around the world, and specifically considers Libya as an example on its efforts and challenges with respect to implementing an e-Government services initiative. E-Government services represent a fundamental shift in the design and methods of government efficiency, accountability and commitment. However, Libya in particular seems to face steep and unique challenges when it comes to the implementation of e-Government services. The country often seems to lack sufficient resources, infrastructure, and know-how to implement a large-scale e-Government services project. Furthermore, a large number of the Libyan population often have little contact with computers and the Internet, and may be distrustful of technology and their government. Primarily, this study aims to articulate the challenges and suggest strategies to overcome them. First, the study provides a literature review, from which a model for the adoption of e-Government services in Libya based on the principles of business management is derived. It details the phases of transforming to e-Government services, including (a) establishing a vision; (b) developing goals, objectives, a work plan and actions; (c) assessing Libyan people’s awareness of e-Government services; (d) setting performance benchmarks; and (e) measuring success. Then, the study employs field studies designed to find out the opinions, attitudes and perspectives of the stakeholders in Libya’s fledgling e-Government services initiative. The results from the data collection confirmed that there are numerous factors that may have to be overcome. A particular instance is that Libya must reach out to its citizens about internet technology, improve its national technological infrastructure, and include the input of all stakeholders in the design and implementation of e-Government services. Following from the surveys, the study also considers a number of specific case studies on Libya that emphasise in compelling terms the challenges, successes, and struggles of Libya’s e-Government services initiative so far. The study makes recommendations and suggests strategies to deal with the identified challenges and finally provides a roadmap to policymakers and the key stakeholders in Libya that may assist in the successful implementation of e-Government services programmes.
01 Jan 1958
01 Mar 1983
TL;DR: Abridged Contents Violence against Wives Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children Marital Rape Toward a Theory of Intrafamily Violence An Appraisal of Current Issues as mentioned in this paper...
Abstract: Introduction - Abridged Contents Violence against Wives Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children Marital Rape Toward a Theory of Intrafamily Violence An Appraisal of Current Issues
TL;DR: A simple model of the effects of time on memory is described, where the effect of forgetting and telescoping where the event is remembered as occurring more recently than it did is combined.
Abstract: This article describes a simple model of the effects of time on memory. The model combines the effects of forgetting and telescoping where the event is remembered as occurring more recently than it did. The model is tested on behavior data for which validation information are available. The use of records and of aided recall are shown to have opposite effects on memory errors. Records reduce telescoping effects, but not errors of omission. Aided recall reduces omissions, but does not reduce and may even increase telescoping. The article also includes a discussion of other characteristics of the interview and the respondent that affect memory.
01 Jan 1977