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Art and architecture

01 Dec 1997-pp 736-761
TL;DR: In the provinces the architectural and art forms characteristic of the Flavian era continued to flourish as mentioned in this paper and Dynamism returned to imperial commissions with the Romano-Spanish Trajan, who was able to impress upon it his own many-sided personality: ruler, philhellene, architect, dilettante, poet, traveller and romantic.
Abstract: Greek artefacts, craftsmen and artists had penetrated Rome since regal days; from the second century BC this trickle had become a continuing and influential flood, contributing together with Italic and Etruscan architecture and art, and the developing central Italian and Roman concrete architecture, to the rich tapestry of the art of the capital. Vespasian (69-79), founder of the Flavian dynasty, showed an astute pragmatism in his handling of architecture and art. In the provinces the architectural and art forms characteristic of the Flavian era continued to flourish. Dynamism returned to imperial commissions with the Romano-Spanish Trajan. The age of Hadrian (117-38) proved to be extraordinary, largely because of the extent to which he was able to impress upon it his own many-sided personality: ruler, philhellene, architect, dilettante, poet, traveller and romantic. The rich artistic harvest of the Flavian to the Antonine ages was not just an imperial, but a corporate achievement, one which offered a worthy inheritance to following generations.
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Book
04 Feb 2010
TL;DR: The first volume, highly acclaimed on publication, was quickly reprinted in spite of an ambitious first print-run of 1000 copies as discussed by the authors, and the layout was improved and the footnotes appeared at the foot of each page and chapter numbers were placed in the margins.
Abstract: Few books of scholarship have held up so well to public attention over the last two hundred years. At a time when the materials for this history were scant, a mind as great as Gibbon's was able to absorb everything known on the subject and dominate it with his historical erudition and inimitable literary style. The first volume, highly acclaimed on publication, was quickly reprinted in spite of an ambitious first print-run of 1000 copies. Careless proofreading meant numerous errors had to be rectified in later editions. It was not until the third edition, reprinted here, that the layout was improved and the footnotes appeared at the foot of each page and chapter numbers were placed in the margins.

418 citations

Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: Hobbes and the studia humanitatis as mentioned in this paper were the first to propose the notion of negative liberty and its application in the English civil war and the French civil war.
Abstract: Volume I: General Introduction Acknowledgments Notes on the text 1. Introduction: seeing things their way 2. The practice of history and the cult of the fact 3. Interpretation, rationality and truth 4. Meaning and understanding in the history of ideas 5. Motives, intentions and interpretation 6. Interpretation and the understanding of speech acts 7. 'Social meaning' and the explanation of social action 8. Moral principles and social change 9. The idea of a cultural lexicon 10. Retrospect: Studying rhetoric and conceptual change. Volume II. 1. Introduction 2. The rediscovery of republican values 3. Ambrogio Lorenzetti and the portrayal of virtuous government 4. Ambrogio Lorenzetti on the power and glory of republics 5. Republican virtues in an age of princes 6. Machiavelli on virtu and the maintenance of liberty 7. The idea of negative liberty: Machiavelli and modern perspectives 8. Thomas More's Utopia and the virtue of true nobility 9. Was there a Calvinist theory of revolution? 10. Moral ambiguity and the renaissance art of eloquence 11. John Milton and the politics of slavery 12. Classical liberty, Renaissance translation and the English civil war 13. From the state of princes to the modern state 14. Augustan party politics and Renaissance constitutional thought. Volume III: 1. Introduction: Hobbes's career in philosophy 2. Hobbes and the studia humanitatis 3. Hobbes's changing conception of a civil science 4. Hobbes on rhetoric and the construction of morality 5. Hobbes and the purely artificial person of the state 6. Hobbes on the proper signification of liberty 7. Hobbes and the classical theory of laughter 8. History and ideology in the English revolution 9. The context of Hobbes's theory of political obligation 10. Conquest and consent: Hobbes and the engagement controversy 11. Hobbes and his disciples in France and England 12. Hobbes and the politics of the early Royal Society 13. Hobbes's last word on politics.

399 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The culture of the countryside 7. Consuming Rome 8. Keeping faith? 9. Roman power and the Gauls 10. Being Roman in Gaul 11. Mapping cultural change as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: 1. On Romanization 2. Roman power and the Gauls 3. The civilising ethos 4. Mapping cultural change 5. Urbanising the Gauls 6. The culture of the countryside 7. Consuming Rome 8. Keeping faith? 9. Being Roman in Gaul.

370 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hellenism and Empire as mentioned in this paper explores identity, politics, and culture in the Greek world of the first three centuries AD, the period known as the second sophistic, and shows that Greek identity came before any loyalty to Rome (and was indeed partly a reaction to Rome).
Abstract: Hellenism and Empire explores identity, politics, and culture in the Greek world of the first three centuries AD, the period known as the second sophistic. The sources of this identity were the words and deeds of classical Greece, and the emphasis placed on Greekness and Greek heritage was far greater now than at any other time. Yet this period is often seen as a time of happy consensualism between the Greek and Roman halves of the Roman Empire. The first part of the book shows that Greek identity came before any loyalty to Rome (and was indeed partly a reaction to Rome), while the views of the major authors of the period, which are studies in the second part, confirm and restate the prior claims of Hellenism.

302 citations

References
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MonographDOI
TL;DR: Hartley as discussed by the authors discusses the psychodynamics of orality of language in the context of the oral past and present, and the evolution of the human mind from oral to written language.
Abstract: John Hartley: Before Ongism: "To become what we want to be, we have to decide what we were" Orality & Literacy: The Technologization Of The Word Introduction Part 1: The orality of language 1. The literate mind and the oral past 2. Did you say 'oral literature'? Part 2: The modern discovery of primary oral cultures 1. Early awareness of oral tradition 2. The Homeric question 3. Milman Parry's discovery 4. Consequent and related work Part 3: Some psychodynamics of orality 1. Sounded word as power and action 2. You know what you can recall: mnemonics and formulas 3. Further characteristics of orally based thought and expression 4. Additive rather than subordinative 5. Aggregative rather than analytic 6. Redundant or 'copious' 7. Conservative or traditionalist 8. Close to the human lifeworld 9. Agonistically toned 10. Empathetic and participatory rather than objectively distanced 11. Homeostatic 12. Situational rather than abstract 13. Oral memorization 14. Verbomotor lifestyle 15. The noetic role of heroic 'heavy' figures and of the bizarre 16. The interiority of sound 17. Orality, community and the sacral 18. Words are not signs Part 4: Writing restructures consciousness 1. The new world of autonomous discourse 2. Plato, writing and computers 3. Writing is a technology 4. What is 'writing' or 'script'? 5. Many scripts but only one alphabet 6. The onset of literacy 7. From memory to written records 8. Some dynamics of textuality 9. Distance, precision, grapholects and magnavocabularies 10. Interactions: rhetoric and the places 11. Interactions: learned languages 12. Tenaciousness of orality Part 5: Print, space and closure 1. Hearing-dominance yields to sight-dominance 2. Space and meaning 3. Indexes 4. Books, contents and labels 5. Meaningful surface 6. Typographic space 7. More diffuse effects 8. Print and closure: intertextuality 9. Post-typography: electronics Part 6: Oral memory, the story line and characterization 1. The primacy of the story line 2. Narrative and oral cultures 3. Oral memory and the story line 4. Closure of plot: travelogue to detective story 5. The 'round' character, writing and print Part 7: Some theorems 1. Literary history 2. New Criticism and Formalism 3. Structuralism 4. Textualists and deconstructionists 5. Speech-act and reader-response theory 6. Social sciences, philosophy, biblical studies 7. Orality, writing and being human 8. 'Media' versus human communication 9. The inward turn: consciousness and the text John Hartley: After Ongism: The Evolution of Networked Intelligence

5,688 citations

Book
22 Feb 1984
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the role of the autonomous model in the development of adult literacy in the UK and the USA, and present a survey of the most popular literacy campaigns.
Abstract: Acknowledgements Prolegomenon Introduction Part I Literacy In Theory: 1 The 'autonomous' model: I literacy and rationality 2 The 'autonomous' model: II goody 3 Literacy and linguistics 4 The 'ideological model Part II Literacy In Theory And Practice: 5 'Maktab' literacy 6 'Commercial' literacy Part III Literacy In Practice: 7 Unesco and radical literacy campaigns 8 Adult literacy campaigns in the UK and the USA Bibliography Index

3,410 citations

Book
01 Jan 1972
TL;DR: Fernand Braudel as mentioned in this paper analizira poglavito udio sredine i gotovo nepomicnu povijest covjeka u njegovim odnosima s okolinom koja ga okružuje.
Abstract: U svom prvom svesku doktorske disertaciji najznacajniji francuski povjesnicar XX. st.Fernand Braudel analizira poglavito udio sredine i gotovo nepomicnu povijest covjeka u njegovim odnosima s okolinom koja ga okružuje.Poglavlja prvog dijela nose naslove "Poluotoci: planine, visoravni i ravnice" ; U srcu Sredozmlja mora i primorja ; Granice ili najsire Sredozemlje ; Fizicko jedinstvo: klima i povijest ; Ljudsko jedinstvo: putovi i gradovi, gradovi i putovi". Drugi dio knjige je naslovlje sa "Zajednicke sudbine i sveukupna kretanja" a sastoji se od 3 poglavlja: 1. Ekonomija: Mjerilo stoljeca ; 2. Privredne djelatnosti: plemenite kovine, novac i cijene ; 3. Privredne djelatnosti: trgovina i prijevoz.

1,903 citations

Book
01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a list of tables and figures of pre-literate societies and discuss the evolution and growth of knowledge in the preliterate world, including the Grand Dichotomy reconsidered.
Abstract: List of tables and figures Preface 1. Evolution and communication 2. Intellectuals in pre-literate societies? 3. Literacy, criticism and the growth of knowledge 4. Literacy and classification: on turning the tables 5. What's in a list? 6. Following a formula 7. The recipe, the prescription and the experiment 8. The Grand Dichotomy reconsidered Notes to the text References List of abbreviations Index.

1,349 citations

Book
01 Jan 1976
TL;DR: Professor McNeill, through an accumulation of evidence, demonstrates the central role of pestilence in human affairs and the extent to which it has changed the course of history.
Abstract: This book describes the dramatic impact of infectious diseases on the rise and fall of civilisations. Plague demoralized the Athenian army during the Peloponnesian war, and ravaged the Roman Empire. In the 16th century smallpox was the decisive agent that allowed Cortez with only 600 men to conquer the Aztec empire, whose subjects numbered millions. As recently as 1918-19 an epidemic of influenza claimed twenty-one million victims, and seemed to threaten civilization itself. Diseases such as syphilis, cholera, smallpox and malariahave been devastating to humanity for centuries. Now professor McNeill, through an accumulation of evidence, demonstrates the central role of pestilence in human affairs and the extent to which it has changed the course of history.

1,263 citations