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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JOIM.13275

Arterial stiffness in acute COVID-19 and potential associations with clinical outcome.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Internal Medicine (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 290, Iss: 2, pp 437-443
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) interferes with the vascular endothelium. It is not known whether COVID-19 additionally affects arterial stiffness. METHODS: This case-control study compared brachial-ankle pulse wave (baPWV) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocities (cfPWV) of acutely ill patients with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: Twenty-two COVID-19 patients (50% females, 77 [67-84] years) were compared with 22 age- and sex-matched controls. In COVID-19 patients, baPWV (19.9 [18.4-21.0] vs. 16.0 [14.2-20.4], P = 0.02) and cfPWV (14.3 [13.4-16.0] vs. 11.0 [9.5-14.6], P = 0.01) were higher than in the controls. In multiple regression analysis, COVID-19 was independently associated with higher cfPWV (s = 3.164, P = 0.004) and baPWV (s = 3.532, P = 0.003). PWV values were higher in nonsurvivors. In survivors, PWV correlated with length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 appears to be related to an enhanced PWV reflecting an increase in arterial stiffness. Higher PWV might be related to an increased length of hospital stay and mortality.

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Topics: Arterial stiffness (56%)
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6 results found



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ATHPLU.2021.08.001
Alpo Vuorio, Timo E. Strandberg1, Frederik Raal2, Raul D. Santos3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
08 Aug 2021-
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause increased morbidity and mortality, and due to the slow pace of vaccination COVID-19 will probably remain a global burden to health systems for a long time. Unfortunately, the necessary prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 have led to restriction measures that are hampering the routine care of common chronic metabolic conditions like hypercholesterolemia. It is of particular concern that during the acute phase of COVID-19, the control of pre-existing metabolic diseases tends to get worse which again increases the risk for complications and a poor outcome in these patients. A significant contributor to these complications is endothelial dysfunction which is associated with COVID-19. This Commentary will discuss the impact of COVID-19 on endothelial function particularly in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a metabolic inherited disease known to in itself adversely affect endothelial function. There should be no hesitation to continue with statin therapy in severe hypercholesterolemic patients with COVID-19. We argue that in FH patients with COVID-19 the clinicians need even consider intensifying statin therapy as well as the addition of other lipid-lowering agents, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9(PCSK9) inhibitors. In contrast to statins, the PCSK9 inhibitors lower lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] level, and, accordingly, these latter drugs need to be considered particularly in FH patients with an elevated level of Lp(a). This call applies to the in-hospital stay and also beyond. When considering that the vasculopathic effects of COVID-19 may persist, a long-term follow-up of individualized therapies in FH patients is warranted.

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Topics: Familial hypercholesterolemia (53%), PCSK9 (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17816/PMJ38348-60
Abstract: The article presents a review of bibliographic data on risk factors and mechanisms of the damage to the heart tissues in a new coronavirus infection. The direct viral-associated injury, as well as the influence of the components of the cytokine storm are analyzed. Myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias are considered. In addition, the first results of long-term follow-up observations of patients who underwent COVID-19 were summarized, and the change in arterial stiffness was assessed.

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Topics: Heart Injury (65%), Myocarditis (60%), Arterial stiffness (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2021.750887
Abstract: Background: Rising data suggest that COVID-19 affects vascular endothelium while the underlying mechanisms promoting COVID-19-associated endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory vasculopathy are largely unknown. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of COVID-19 to persisting vascular injury and to identify parameters linked to COVID-19-associated endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory vasculopathy. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerine-related dilation (NMD), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index, intima-media thickness (IMT), compounds of the arginine and kynurenine metabolism, homocysteine, von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelial microparticles (EMP), antiendothelial cell antibodies, inflammatory, and immunological parameters, as well as nailfold capillary morphology were measured in post-COVID-19 patients, patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) and healthy controls without prior or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Post-COVID-19 patients had higher values of PWV, augmentation index, IMT, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, vWF, homocysteine, CD31+/CD42b- EMP, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, interleukin-6, and β-2-glycoprotein antibodies as well as lower levels of homoarginine and tryptophan compared to healthy controls (all with p < 0.05). A higher total number of pathologically altered inflammatory conditions and higher rates of capillary ramifications, loss, caliber variability, elongations and bushy capillaries with an overall higher microangiopathy evolution score were also observed in post-COVID-19 patients (all with p < 0.05). Most parameters of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation were comparably altered in post-COVID-19 patients and patients with ASCVD, including FMD and NMD. Conclusion: COVID-19 may affect arterial stiffness, capillary morphology, EMP and selected parameters of arginine, kynurenine and homocysteine metabolism as well as of inflammation contributing to COVID-19-associated endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory vasculopathy.

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Topics: Endothelial dysfunction (58%), Homocysteine (51%), Microangiopathy (51%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-99050-0
12 Oct 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Accurate risk stratification in COVID-19 patients consists a major clinical need to guide therapeutic strategies. We sought to evaluate the prognostic role of estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), a marker of arterial stiffness which reflects overall arterial integrity and aging, in risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This retrospective, longitudinal cohort study, analyzed a total population of 1671 subjects consisting of 737 hospitalized COVID-19 patients consecutively recruited from two tertiary centers (Newcastle cohort: n = 471 and Pisa cohort: n = 266) and a non-COVID control cohort (n = 934). Arterial stiffness was calculated using validated formulae for ePWV. ePWV progressively increased across the control group, COVID-19 survivors and deceased patients (adjusted mean increase per group 1.89 m/s, P < 0.001). Using a machine learning approach, ePWV provided incremental prognostic value and improved reclassification for mortality over the core model including age, sex and comorbidities [AUC (core model + ePWV vs. core model) = 0.864 vs. 0.755]. ePWV provided similar prognostic value when pulse pressure or hs-Troponin were added to the core model or over its components including age and mean blood pressure (p < 0.05 for all). The optimal prognostic ePWV value was 13.0 m/s. ePWV conferred additive discrimination (AUC: 0.817 versus 0.779, P < 0.001) and reclassification value (NRI = 0.381, P < 0.001) over the 4C Mortality score, a validated score for predicting mortality in COVID-19 and the Charlson comorbidity index. We suggest that calculation of ePWV, a readily applicable estimation of arterial stiffness, may serve as an additional clinical tool to refine risk stratification of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 beyond established risk factors and scores.

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Topics: Pulse wave velocity (55%), Retrospective cohort study (55%), Arterial stiffness (53%) ... read more

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21 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHT151
Abstract: ABCD : Appropriate Blood pressure Control in Diabetes ABI : ankle–brachial index ABPM : ambulatory blood pressure monitoring ACCESS : Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survival ACCOMPLISH : Avoiding Cardiovascular Events in Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension ACCORD : Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ACE : angiotensin-converting enzyme ACTIVE I : Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events ADVANCE : Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation AHEAD : Action for HEAlth in Diabetes ALLHAT : Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart ATtack ALTITUDE : ALiskiren Trial In Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-renal Endpoints ANTIPAF : ANgioTensin II Antagonist In Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation APOLLO : A Randomized Controlled Trial of Aliskiren in the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Elderly People ARB : angiotensin receptor blocker ARIC : Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities ARR : aldosterone renin ratio ASCOT : Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial ASCOT-LLA : Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial—Lipid Lowering Arm ASTRAL : Angioplasty and STenting for Renal Artery Lesions A-V : atrioventricular BB : beta-blocker BMI : body mass index BP : blood pressure BSA : body surface area CA : calcium antagonist CABG : coronary artery bypass graft CAPPP : CAPtopril Prevention Project CAPRAF : CAndesartan in the Prevention of Relapsing Atrial Fibrillation CHD : coronary heart disease CHHIPS : Controlling Hypertension and Hypertension Immediately Post-Stroke CKD : chronic kidney disease CKD-EPI : Chronic Kidney Disease—EPIdemiology collaboration CONVINCE : Controlled ONset Verapamil INvestigation of CV Endpoints CT : computed tomography CV : cardiovascular CVD : cardiovascular disease D : diuretic DASH : Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DBP : diastolic blood pressure DCCT : Diabetes Control and Complications Study DIRECT : DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials DM : diabetes mellitus DPP-4 : dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EAS : European Atherosclerosis Society EASD : European Association for the Study of Diabetes ECG : electrocardiogram EF : ejection fraction eGFR : estimated glomerular filtration rate ELSA : European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis ESC : European Society of Cardiology ESH : European Society of Hypertension ESRD : end-stage renal disease EXPLOR : Amlodipine–Valsartan Combination Decreases Central Systolic Blood Pressure more Effectively than the Amlodipine–Atenolol Combination FDA : U.S. Food and Drug Administration FEVER : Felodipine EVent Reduction study GISSI-AF : Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Atrial Fibrillation HbA1c : glycated haemoglobin HBPM : home blood pressure monitoring HOPE : Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation HOT : Hypertension Optimal Treatment HRT : hormone replacement therapy HT : hypertension HYVET : HYpertension in the Very Elderly Trial IMT : intima-media thickness I-PRESERVE : Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function INTERHEART : Effect of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors associated with Myocardial Infarction in 52 Countries INVEST : INternational VErapamil SR/T Trandolapril ISH : Isolated systolic hypertension JNC : Joint National Committee JUPITER : Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin LAVi : left atrial volume index LIFE : Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertensives LV : left ventricle/left ventricular LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy LVM : left ventricular mass MDRD : Modification of Diet in Renal Disease MRFIT : Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial MRI : magnetic resonance imaging NORDIL : The Nordic Diltiazem Intervention study OC : oral contraceptive OD : organ damage ONTARGET : ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial PAD : peripheral artery disease PATHS : Prevention And Treatment of Hypertension Study PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PPAR : peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PREVEND : Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENdstage Disease PROFESS : Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Secondary Strokes PROGRESS : Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study PWV : pulse wave velocity QALY : Quality adjusted life years RAA : renin-angiotensin-aldosterone RAS : renin-angiotensin system RCT : randomized controlled trials RF : risk factor ROADMAP : Randomized Olmesartan And Diabetes MicroAlbuminuria Prevention SBP : systolic blood pressure SCAST : Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker Candesartan for Treatment of Acute STroke SCOPE : Study on COgnition and Prognosis in the Elderly SCORE : Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation SHEP : Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program STOP : Swedish Trials in Old Patients with Hypertension STOP-2 : The second Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension SYSTCHINA : SYSTolic Hypertension in the Elderly: Chinese trial SYSTEUR : SYSTolic Hypertension in Europe TIA : transient ischaemic attack TOHP : Trials Of Hypertension Prevention TRANSCEND : Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease UKPDS : United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study VADT : Veterans' Affairs Diabetes Trial VALUE : Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation WHO : World Health Organization ### 1.1 Principles The 2013 guidelines on hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology …

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Topics: Systolic hypertension (66%), Blood pressure (63%), Ambulatory blood pressure (59%) ... read more

13,846 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
02 May 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Vol 395 May 2, 202

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Topics: Endotheliitis (68%)

3,207 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2009.10.061
Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate robust quantitative estimates of the predictive value of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) for future cardiovascular (CV) events and all-cause mortality by meta-analyses of longitudinal studies. Background Arterial stiffness is increasingly recognized as a surrogate end point for CV disease. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of 17 longitudinal studies that evaluated aortic PWV and followed up 15,877 subjects for a mean of 7.7 years. Results The pooled relative risk (RR) of clinical events increased in a stepwise, linear-like fashion from the first to the third tertile of aortic PWV. The pooled RRs of total CV events, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality were 2.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.89 to 2.70, 14 studies), 2.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.68 to 2.42, 10 studies), and 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.61 to 2.24, 11 studies), respectively, for high versus low aortic PWV subjects. For total CV events and CV mortality, the RR was significantly higher in high baseline risk groups (coronary artery disease, renal disease, hypertension) compared with low-risk subjects (general population). An increase in aortic PWV by 1 m/s corresponded to an age-, sex-, and risk factor–adjusted risk increase of 14%, 15%, and 15% in total CV events, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality, respectively. An increase in aortic PWV by 1 SD was associated with respective increases of 47%, 47%, and 42%. Conclusions Aortic stiffness expressed as aortic PWV is a strong predictor of future CV events and all-cause mortality. The predictive ability of arterial stiffness is higher in subjects with a higher baseline CV risk.

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Topics: Pulse wave velocity (58%), Arterial stiffness (55%), Aortic Augmentation Index (53%) ... read more

2,952 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000131515.03336.F8
15 Jun 2004-Circulation
Abstract: As the major regulator of vascular homeostasis, the endothelium exerts a number of vasoprotective effects, such as vasodilation, suppression of smooth muscle cell growth, and inhibition of inflammatory responses. Many of these effects are largely mediated by nitric oxide, the most potent endogenous vasodilator. Nitric oxide opposes the effects of endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors and inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. A defect in the production or activity of nitric oxide leads to endothelial dysfunction, signaled by impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction is an early marker for atherosclerosis and can be detected before structural changes to the vessel wall are apparent on angiography or ultrasound. Many of the risk factors that predispose to atherosclerosis can also cause endothelial dysfunction, and the presence of multiple risk factors has been found to predict endothelial dysfunction. A number of clinical trials have shown that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) improve endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary risk factors beyond what could be attributed to their impact on plasma lipids. Studies have elucidated several possible mechanisms by which statin therapy may improve endothelial dysfunction, including upregulation of nitric oxide production or activity and reduction of oxidative stress.

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Topics: Endothelial dysfunction (66%), Endothelium (62%), Nitric oxide (56%) ... read more

2,079 Citations