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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01431161.2020.1846224

Assessing Crop Water Stress Index of Citrus Using In-Situ Measurements, Landsat, and Sentinel-2 Data

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Remote Sensing (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 42, Iss: 5, pp 1893-1916
Abstract: With the advent of optical sensors, thermal-based indicators can be retrieved at multiscale levels from handheld devices to satellite platforms, providing a low-cost method to mirror plant water st...

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6 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AGWAT.2021.106769
Abstract: A sustainable agricultural system requires increasing water use efficiency and enhancing knowledge of crop water use This prerequisite is more pronounced in the regions with inadequate water resources and limited observational data such as southern Iran Therefore, this study aimed at finding the water requirement of mature orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck, cv Tarocco Ippolito) by identifying standard evapotranspiration rate and crop coefficients (single and dual) Seventy-two orange trees in a drip-irrigated orchard with loam soil were classified into six treatments and irrigated at 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% of reference evapotranspiration rate during 2017 and 2018 Soil moisture variability and crop physiological responses, including stem water potential (Ψstem), net photosynthesis (An), and stomatal conductance (gs) were measured Our results showed that irrigating at 90% ETo provided the full water requirements of the trees The mean crop evapotranspiration rate was calculated as 52 mm day−1, with the crop coefficient ranging from 065 to 095 The average irrigation rate performed traditionally in the region was 19% higher than the actual requirement Analysis of physiological response highlighted the controlling role of stomata in regulating transpiration and maintaining leaf turgor During the peak water-stress, gs ranged from 011 to 012 molm−2 s−1 in fully irrigated trees, to 004–008 molm−2 s−1 in highly stressed trees Our findings will provide a useful guideline for the local growers and agencies to achieve better irrigation scheduling and higher water productivity for the region

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Topics: Crop coefficient (66%), Evapotranspiration (60%), Water-use efficiency (59%) ... read more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMPAG.2021.106232
Abstract: Crop water stress index (CWSI) is a reliable, economic and non-destructive method of monitoring the onset of water stress for irrigation scheduling purposes. Its application, however, is limited due to the need of obtaining the baseline canopy temperatures. This study developed a self-organizing map (SOM) based model to predict the CWSI using microclimatic variables, namely air temperature, canopy temperature and relative humidity. The canopy temperature measurements were made from Indian mustard crop grown in a humid sub-tropical agro-climate during the 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. Eight levels of irrigation treatments (I1 – I8) based on maximum allowable depletion of available soil water were considered in the study. The CWSI for treatments I2 – I7 was computed using the empirical approach based on the experimentally measured baseline canopy temperatures from treatments I1 and I8. The number of data points used was 1260 and 1350 for model training and testing, respectively. The developed SOM model was evaluated using the error indices Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), bias error (BE), absolute error (AE), and coefficient of determination (R2). The SOM predicted CWSI presented a good agreement with the baseline computed CWSI values during model training (R2 = 0.98, NSE = 0.97, AE = 0.018, BE = 0.0004) and testing (R2 = 0.98, NSE = 0.98, AE = 0.018, BE = 0.002). Treatment specific analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of SOM predicted CWSI for different irrigation levels. Results indicated that the presence of zero CWSI values in a significant proportion in the dataset impacted the model prediction performance at low CWSI (

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12524-021-01359-W
Abstract: In this study, we tried to address the applicability of using dynamic remotely sensed data into a static crop model to capture the yield spatiotemporal variability at the field scale. Taking the example of the crop environment resource synthesis for wheat (CERES-wheat), the model was calibrated, improved, and validated using three years of winter wheat field measurement data (growing seasons of 2017–2019). We assimilated the Landsat-based leaf area index (LAI) into the model using the particle filter approach. Four vegetation indices, including NDVI, SAVI, EVI, and EVI-2, were evaluated to identify winter wheat LAI’s best estimator. A linear regression of Landsat-EVI-2 was found to be the most accurate representation of LAI (LAI = 10.08 × EVI-2 − 0.53) with R2 = 0.87, and mean bias error = − 2.04. The higher LAI accuracy from EVI-2 was attributed to the soil and canopy background noise reduction and accounting for certain atmospheric conditions. Assimilating the LAI based on Landsat-EVI-2 into the CERES model improved the model’s overall performance, particularly for grain yield and biomass simulations. The default model predicted LAImax, grain yield, and biomass at 5.1 cm2 cm−2, 8.3 Mg ha−1, and 14.9 Mg ha−1 with RMSE of 1.44, 0.91 Mg ha−1, and 1.2 Mg ha−1, respectively, while the modified model (using the Landsat-EVI-2 data) predicated these values at 6.6 cm2 cm−2, 9.9 Mg ha−1, and 16.6 Mg ha−1 with RMSE of 0.81, 0.54 Mg ha−1, and 0.62 Mg ha−1, respectively.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AGRONOMY11112244
05 Nov 2021-Agronomy
Abstract: The determination of crop water status has positive effects on the Chinese Brassica industry and irrigation decisions. Drought can decrease the production of Chinese Brassica, whereas over-irrigation can waste water. It is desirable to schedule irrigation when the crop suffers from water stress. In this study, a random forest model was developed using sample data derived from meteorological measurements including air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS), and photosynthetic active radiation (Par) to predict the lower baseline (Twet) and upper baseline (Tdry) canopy temperatures for Chinese Brassica from 27 November to 31 December 2020 (E1) and from 25 May to 20 June 2021 (E2). Crop water stress index (CWSI) values were determined based on the predicted canopy temperature and used to assess the crop water status. The study demonstrated the viability of using a random forest model to forecast Twet and Tdry. The coefficients of determination (R2) in E1 were 0.90 and 0.88 for development and 0.80 and 0.77 for validation, respectively. The R2 values in E2 were 0.91 and 0.89 for development and 0.83 and 0.80 for validation, respectively. Our results reveal that the measured and predicted CWSI values had similar R2 values related to stomatal conductance (~0.5 in E1, ~0.6 in E2), whereas the CWSI showed a poor correlation with transpiration rate (~0.25 in E1, ~0.2 in E2). Finally, the methodology used to calculate the daily CWSI for Chinese Brassica in this study showed that both Twet and Tdry, which require frequent measuring and design experiment due to the trial site and condition changes, have the potential to simulate environmental parameters and can therefore be applied to conveniently calculate the CWSI.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10102121
06 Oct 2021-
Abstract: Citrus species are frequently subjected to water and saline stresses worldwide. We evaluated the effects of diurnal changes in the evaporative demands and soil water contents on the plant physiology of grapefruit and mandarin crops under saline reclaimed (RW) and transfer (TW) water conditions, combined with two irrigation strategies, fully irrigated (fI) and non-irrigated (nI). The physiological responses were different depending on the species. Grapefruit showed an isohydric pattern, which restricted the use of the leaf water potential (Ψl) as a plant water status indicator. Its water status was affected by salinity (RW) and water stress (nI), mainly as the combination of both stresses (RW-nI); however, mandarin turned out to be relatively more tolerant to salinity and more sensitive to water stress, mainly because of its low hydraulic conductance (K) levels, showing a critical drop in Ψl that led to severe losses of root–stem (Kroot–stem) and canopy (Kcanopy) hydraulic conductance in TW-nI. This behavior was not observed in RW-nI because a reduction in canopy volume as an adaptive characteristic was observed; thus, mandarin exhibited more anisohydric behavior compared to grapefruit, but isohydrodynamic since its hydrodynamic water potential gradient from roots to shoots (ΔΨplant) was relatively constant across variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and soil water potential. The gs was considered a good plant water status indicator for irrigation scheduling purposes in both species, and its responses to diurnal VPD rise and soil drought were strongly correlated with Kroot–stem. ABA did not show any effect on stomatal regulation, highlighting the fundamental role of plant hydraulics in driving stomatal closure.

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Topics: Stomatal conductance (62%), Water potential (58%), Deficit irrigation (58%) ... read more

References
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74 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(98)00253-4
Abstract: The major bottlenecks of existing algorithms to estimate the spatially distributed surface energy balance in composite terrain by means of remote sensing data are briefly summarised. The relationship between visible and thermal infrared spectral radiances of areas with a sufficiently large hydrological contrast (dry and wet land surface types, vegetative cover is not essential) constitute the basis for the formulation of the new Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). The new algorithm (i) estimates the spatial variation of most essential hydro-meteorological parameters empirically, (ii) requires only field information on short wave atmospheric transmittance, surface temperature and vegetation height, (iii) does not involve numerical simulation models, (iv) calculates the fluxes independently from land cover and (v) can handle thermal infrared images at resolutions between a few meters to a few kilometers. The empirical relationships are adjusted to different geographical regions and time of image acquisition. Actual satellite data is inserted in the derivation of the regression coefficients. Part 2 deals with the validation of SEBAL. q 1998 Elsevier Science BV. All rights reserved.

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Topics: SEBAL (65%), Land cover (55%), Terrain (52%)

2,382 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/WR017I004P01133
Abstract: Canopy temperatures, obtained by infrared thermometry, along with wet- and dry-bulb air temperatures and an estimate of net radiation were used in equations derived from energy balance considerations to calculate a crop water stress index (CWSI). Theoretical limits were developed for the canopy air temperature difference as related to the air vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI was shown to be equal to 1 - E/Ep, the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration obtained from the Penman-Monteith equation. Four experimental plots, planted to wheat, received postemergence irrigations at different times to create different degrees of water stress. Pertinent variables were measured between 1340 and 1400 each day (except some weekends). The CWSI, plotted as a function of time, closely paralleled a plot of the extractable soil water in the 0- to 1.1-m zone. The usefulness and limitations of the index are discussed.

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Topics: Evapotranspiration (56%), Vapour Pressure Deficit (52%), Canopy (50%)

1,444 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2007)133:4(380)
Abstract: Mapping evapotranspiration at high resolution with internalized calibration (METRIC) is a satellite-based image-processing model for calculating evapotranspiration (ET) as a residual of the surface energy balance. METRIC uses as its foundation the pioneering SEBAL energy balance process developed in The Netherlands by Bastiaanssen, where the near-surface temperature gradients are an indexed function of radiometric surface temperature, thereby eliminating the need for absolutely accurate surface temperature and the need for air-temperature measurements. The surface energy balance is internally calibrated using ground-based reference ET to reduce computational biases inherent to remote sensing-based energy balance and to provide congruency with traditional methods for ET. Slope and aspect functions and temperature lapsing are used in applications in mountainous terrain. METRIC algorithms are designed for relatively routine application by trained engineers and other technical professionals who possess a fami...

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Topics: SEBAL (59%), Metric (mathematics) (53%), Evapotranspiration (51%) ... read more

1,365 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0002-1571(81)90032-7
S.B. Idso, R. D. Jackson, P. J. Pinter, R.J. Reginato  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Several experiments involving the measurement of foliage-air temperature differentials (TF—TA) and air vapor pressure deficits (VPD) were conducted on squash, alfalfa, and soybean crops at Tempe and Mesa, Arizona; Manhattan, Kansas; Lincoln, Nebraska; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Fargo, North Dakota. It is shown that throughout the greater portion of the daylight period, plots of TF—TA vs. VPD yield linear relationships for plants transpiring at the potential rate, irrespective of other environmental parameters except cloud cover. This fact is used to develop a crop water stress index that is reasonably independent of environmental variability. Examples of its application to stressed soybeans and alfalfa are provided.

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961 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/WR013I003P00651
Abstract: Canopy temperatures were measured on durum wheat grown in six differentially irrigated plots. Soil water content was measured by using a neutron-scattering technique at two locations within each plot. Water contents, in 20-cm increments to 160 cm, were determined two to five times per week. Using a sliding cubic smoothing technique, we calculated daily water contents and thus water depletion rates for the entire growing season. Canopy temperatures were measured daily between 1330 and 1400 hours. Air temperatures measured at 150 cm above the soil surface were subtracted from the canopy temperatures to form the difference Tc – Ta. The summation of Tc – Ta over time yielded a factor termed the ‘stress degree day’ (SDD). The SDD concept shows promise as an indicator for determining the times and amounts of irrigations. An expression relating evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation and Tc – Ta was simplified and tested by using ET measurements with a lysimeter. The expression was used to predict water use by wheat in the six plots. Predicted ET and measured water used agreed reasonably well. The expression may be useful in determining amounts of irrigation water to apply.

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Topics: Evapotranspiration (56%), Soil water (53%), Lysimeter (53%) ... read more

772 Citations


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