02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 502, Iss: 3, pp 3723-3732

Abstract: A promising method for measuring the cosmological parameter combination fsigma_8 is to compare observed peculiar velocities with peculiar velocities predicted from a galaxy density field using perturbation theory. We use N-body simulations and semi-analytic galaxy formation models to quantify the accuracy and precision of this method. Specifically, we examine a number of technical aspects, including the optimal smoothing length applied to the density field, the use of dark matter halos or galaxies as tracers of the density field, the effect of noise in the halo mass estimates or in the stellar-to-halo mass relation, and the effect of finite survey volumes. We find that for a Gaussian smoothing of 4 Mpc/h, the method has only small systematic biases at the level of 5%. Cosmic variance affects current measurements at the 5% level due to the volume of current redshift data sets.

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Topics: Dark matter (55%), Galaxy formation and evolution (54%), Redshift (54%) ... read more

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5 results found

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Benjamin E. Stahl^{1}, Thomas de Jaeger^{1}, Thomas de Jaeger^{2}, Supranta S. Boruah^{3} +4 more•Institutions (5)

Abstract: We present the Democratic Samples of Supernovae (DSS), a compilation of 775 low-redshift Type Ia and II supernovae (SNe Ia & II), of which 137 SN Ia distances are derived via the newly developed snapshot distance method. Using the objects in the DSS as tracers of the peculiar-velocity field, we compare against the corresponding reconstruction from the 2M++ galaxy redshift survey. Our analysis -- which takes special care to properly weight each DSS subcatalogue and cross-calibrate the relative distance scales between them -- results in a measurement of the cosmological parameter combination $f\sigma_8 = 0.390_{-0.022}^{+0.022}$ as well as an external bulk flow velocity of $195_{-23}^{+22}$ km s$^{-1}$ in the direction $(\ell, b) = (292_{-7}^{+7}, -6_{-4}^{+5})$ deg, which originates from beyond the 2M++ reconstruction. Similarly, we find a bulk flow of $245_{-31}^{+32}$ km s$^{-1}$ toward $(\ell, b) = (294_{-7}^{+7}, 3_{-5}^{+6})$ deg on a scale of $\sim 30 h^{-1}$ Mpc if we ignore the reconstructed peculiar-velocity field altogether. Our constraint on $f\sigma_8$ -- the tightest derived from SNe to date (considering only statistical error bars), and the only one to utilise SNe II -- is broadly consistent with other results from the literature. We intend for our data accumulation and treatment techniques to become the prototype for future studies that will exploit the unprecedented data volume from upcoming wide-field surveys.

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Topics: Type (model theory) (63%)

5 Citations

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Abstract: We generate constrained realizations (CRs) of the density and peculiar velocity fields within $200 \; h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$ from the final release of the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey (2MRS) $-$ the densest all-sky redshift survey to date. The CRs are generated by combining a Wiener filter estimator in spherical Fourier-Bessel space with random realizations of log-normally distributed density fields and Poisson-sampled galaxy positions. The algorithm is tested and calibrated on a set of semi-analytic mock catalogs mimicking the environment of the Local Group (LG), to rigorously account for the statistical and systematic errors of the reconstruction method. By comparing our peculiar velocity CRs with the observed velocities from the Cosmicflows-3 catalog, we constrain the normalized linear growth rate to $f \sigma_8^\mathrm{lin} = 0.367 \pm 0.060$, which is consistent at the $1.1 \sigma$ level with the latest Planck results as well as other direct probes. Simultaneously, we estimate a bulk flow contribution from sources beyond the 2MRS reconstruction volume of $B^\mathrm{ext} = 199 \pm 68 \; \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ towards $l = 299 \pm 18^\circ$, $b = 8 \pm 19^\circ$. The total reconstructed velocity field at the position of the LG, smoothed with a $1 \; h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$ Gaussian, is $685 \pm 75 \; \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ towards $l = 270.6 \pm 6.6^\circ$, $b = 35.5 \pm 7.2^\circ$, in good agreement with the observed CMB dipole. The total reconstructed bulk flow within different radii is compatible with other measurements. Within a $50 \; h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$ Gaussian window we find a bulk flow of $274 \pm 50 \; \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ towards $l = 287 \pm 9^\circ$, $b = 11 \pm 10^\circ$. The code used to generate the CRs and obtain these results, dubbed CORAS, is made publicly available.

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4 Citations

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Abstract: Separating the components of redshift due to expansion and motion in the nearby universe ($z<0.1$) is critical for using Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$) and the equation-of-state parameter of dark energy ($w$). Here, we study the two dominant 'motions' contributing to nearby peculiar redshifts: large-scale, coherent-flow (CF) motions and small-scale motions due to gravitationally-associated galaxies deemed to be in a galaxy group. We use a set of 585 low-$z$ SNe from the Pantheon+ sample, and evaluate the efficacy of corrections to these motions by measuring the improvement of SN distance residuals. We study multiple methods for modeling the large and small-scale motions and show that while group assignments and CF corrections individually contribute to small improvements in Hubble residual scatter, the greatest improvement comes from the combination of the two (relative standard deviation of the Hubble residuals RSD improves from 0.167 mag to 0.157 mag). We find the optimal flow corrections derived from various local density maps significantly reduce Hubble residuals while raising $H_0$ by $\sim0.4$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$ as compared to using CMB redshifts, disfavoring the hypothesis that unrecognized local structure could resolve the Hubble tension. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties in cosmological parameters after optimally correcting redshifts are 0.08-0.17 km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$ in $H_0$ and 0.02-0.03 in $w$ which are smaller than the statistical uncertainties for these measurements: 1.5 km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$ for $H_0$ and 0.04 for $w$.

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Topics: Hubble's law (56%), Redshift (56%), Peculiar velocity (56%) ... read more

2 Citations

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Abstract: The exquisite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations by Planck allows us to tightly constrain the amplitude of matter fluctuations at redshift $\sim 1100$ in the $\Lambda$-cold dark matter ($\Lambda$CDM) model. This amplitude can be extrapolated to the present epoch, yielding constraints on the value of the $\sigma_8$ parameter. On the other hand the abundance of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) clusters detected by Planck, with masses inferred by using hydrostatic equilibrium estimates, leads to a significantly lower value of the same parameter. This discrepancy is often dubbed the "$\sigma_8$ tension" in the literature and is sometimes regarded as a possible sign of new physics. Here, we examine a direct determination of $\sigma_8$ at the present epoch in $\Lambda$CDM, and thereby the cluster mass calibrations using cosmological data at low redshift, namely the measurements of $f\sigma_8$ from the analysis of the completed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): we combine redshift-space distortions measurements with Planck CMB constraints, X-ray, and SZ cluster counts within the $\Lambda$CDM framework, but leaving the present day amplitude of matter fluctuations as an independent parameter (i.e. no extrapolation is made from high-redshift CMB constraints). The calibration of X-ray and SZ masses are therefore left as free parameters throughout the whole analysis. Our study yields tight constraints on the aforementioned calibrations, with values entirely consistent with results obtained from the full combination of CMB and cluster data only. Such agreement suggests an absence of tension in the $\Lambda$CDM model between CMB-based estimates of $\sigma_8$ and constraints from low-redshift on $f\sigma_8$ but indicates a tension with the standard calibration of clusters masses.

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Topics: Cosmic microwave background (53%), Dark matter (52%), Planck (52%) ... read more

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01 Jan 2021-

Abstract: Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are magnificent explosions in the Cosmos that are thought to result from the thermonuclear runaway of white dwarf stars in multistar systems (see, e.g., Jha et al. 2019, for a recent review). Though the exact details of the progenitor system(s) and explosion mechanism(s) remain elusive, SNe Ia have proven themselves to be immensely valuable in shaping our understanding of the physical laws that govern the evolution of the Universe (i.e., physical cosmology). This value is manifested chiefly in two empirical facts: (i) SNe Ia are incredibly luminous (reaching the equivalent of several billion Suns), and (ii) the relatively similar peak luminosities that all "normal" SNe Ia reach can be further homogenized by exploiting a correlation with the rate of photometric evolution (e.g., Phillips 1993). Together, these facts make SNe Ia excellent extragalactic distance indicators, and their use as such led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe (Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999). Through this, the current cosmological paradigm came into favor — the so-called ΛCDM model, where the Universe consists primarily of repulsive dark energy (of which a leading candidate is Einstein’s cosmological constant, Λ) and cold dark matter (CDM).In this thesis, I present a comprehensive study that follows the entire SN Ia cosmology lifecyle, from data acquisition to cosmological analysis (albeit of a different flavor than those mentioned above). While these “bookends” provide natural segmentation points in this thesis, there is a third, intermediate segment which serves to present a complementary method for SN Ia distance measurement that is far less data intensive than conventional approaches. In this way, the segments are hierarchical, each depending on its predecessor and enabling its successor.After appropriately setting the stage in Chapter 1, I delve into the first segment (data acquisition) with Chapter 2, a data release and analysis of 93 multipassband SN Ia light curves collected between 2005 and 2018, and Chapter 3, a complementary release of 637 low-redshift SN Ia optical spectra from a similar time interval. In both, I describe open-source software I developed for data processing and analysis purposes, and make — in addition to the data themselves — useful, value-added data products (e.g., fitted parameters from light curves) available to the community. When combined with prior releases, the Berkeley SN Ia sample now reaches nearly 2000 optical spectra and more than 250 multiband light curves, all observed and processed with the utmost care for quality and internal consistency.This large, homogeneous sample proves critical for the second segment of this thesis, in which I ultimately develop and validate the aforementioned technique — the snapshot distance method (SDM) — for estimating the distance to an SN Ia from sparse observations. As a prerequisite to the SDM, I develop, in Chapter 4, an open-source software package called deepSIP that is capable of determining the phase and light-curve shape of an SN Ia — both of which conventionally require a well-sampled light curve — from a single optical spectrum. At its heart, deepSIP consists of a set of three convolutional neural networks trained on a significant fraction of all publicly available SN Ia optical data (including those presented in the first segment of this thesis), with judicious augmentation steps included to promote telescope agnosticism and model robustness. The impressive performance of deepSIP enables the SDM, which, as I demonstrate in Chapter 5, is capable of deriving an SN Ia distance estimate from as little as one optical spectrum and one epoch of 2+ passband photometry with notable precision over a wide range of SN Ia parameters.This leads, finally, into the last segment of this thesis (cosmological analysis), where I use the SDM to turn trash (i.e., SN Ia observations that were previously unusable owing to data sparsity) into treasure (i.e., reliable distance estimates to be used in a cosmological study). In particular, in Chapter 6, I combine a novel sample of 137 SDM-resurrected SNe Ia with a large literature sample of SNe Ia and SNe II to measure peculiar velocities and set leading (from an SN-only perspective) constraints on the cosmological parameter combination fσ8 and the nature of bulk flows in the local Universe. Moreover, the methods by which I perform this analysis establish a reproducible and extensible blueprint for future such analyses as large-scale surveys come online and unleash an unprecedented data volume.

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Topics: Supernova (54%), Cosmological constant (53%), Metric expansion of space (52%) ... read more

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38 results found

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Nabila Aghanim^{1}, Yashar Akrami^{2}, Yashar Akrami^{3}, Yashar Akrami^{4} +229 more•Institutions (70)

Abstract: We present cosmological parameter results from the ﬁnal full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to signiﬁcant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters Improved modelling of the small-scale polarization leads to more robust constraints on manyparameters,withresidualmodellinguncertaintiesestimatedtoaﬀectthemonlyatthe05σlevelWeﬁndgoodconsistencywiththestandard spatially-ﬂat6-parameter ΛCDMcosmologyhavingapower-lawspectrumofadiabaticscalarperturbations(denoted“base ΛCDM”inthispaper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination A combined analysis gives dark matter density Ωch2 = 0120±0001, baryon density Ωbh2 = 00224±00001, scalar spectral index ns = 0965±0004, and optical depth τ = 0054±0007 (in this abstract we quote 68% conﬁdence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits) The angular acoustic scale is measured to 003% precision, with 100θ∗ = 10411±00003Theseresultsareonlyweaklydependentonthecosmologicalmodelandremainstable,withsomewhatincreasederrors, in many commonly considered extensions Assuming the base-ΛCDM cosmology, the inferred (model-dependent) late-Universe parameters are: HubbleconstantH0 = (674±05)kms−1Mpc−1;matterdensityparameterΩm = 0315±0007;andmatterﬂuctuationamplitudeσ8 = 0811±0006 We ﬁnd no compelling evidence for extensions to the base-ΛCDM model Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and consideringsingle-parameterextensions)weconstraintheeﬀectiveextrarelativisticdegreesoffreedomtobe Neﬀ = 299±017,inagreementwith the Standard Model prediction Neﬀ = 3046, and ﬁnd that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained toPmν < 012 eV The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudesthan predicted in base ΛCDM at over 2σ, which pulls some parameters that aﬀect thelensing amplitude away from the ΛCDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAOdataThejointconstraintwithBAOmeasurementsonspatialcurvatureisconsistentwithaﬂatuniverse, ΩK = 0001±0002Alsocombining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the dark-energy equation of state parameter is measured to be w0 = −103±003, consistent with a cosmological constant We ﬁnd no evidence for deviations from a purely power-law primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r0002 < 006 Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the base-ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations The Planck base-ΛCDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey’s combined-probe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower ﬂuctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in signiﬁcant, 36σ, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value) Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data

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Topics: Baryon acoustic oscillations (62%), Planck (58%), Dark energy (58%) ... read more

3,432 Citations

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19 Apr 1993-

Abstract: During the last twenty years, dramatic improvements in methods of observing astrophysical phenomena from the ground and in space have added to our knowledge of what the universe is like now and what it was like in the past, going back to the hot big bang. In this overview of today's physical cosmology, P.J.E. Peebles shows how observation has combined with theoretical elements to establish the subject as a mature science, while he also discusses the most notable recent attempts to understand the origin and structure of the universe. A successor to Peebles's classic volume Physical Cosmology (Princeton, 1971), the book is a comprehensive overview addressed not only to students but also to scientists active in fields outside cosmology. The first chapter of the work presents the elements of physical cosmology, including the history of the discovery of the expanding universe. The second, on the cosmological tests that measure the geometry of spacetime, discusses general relativity theory as the basis for the tests, and then surveys the broad variety of ways the tests can be applied with the new generations of telescopes and detectors. The third chapter deals with the origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe, and reviews ideas about how the evolution of the universe might be traced back to very early epochs when structure originated. Each section of these chapters begins with an introduction that can be understood with no special knowledge beyond undergraduate physics, and then progresses to more specialized topics. P.J.E. Peebles is Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton University. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society.

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Topics: Physical cosmology (59%), Metric expansion of space (56%), Cosmology (54%) ... read more

3,397 Citations

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Peter Behroozi^{1}, Peter Behroozi^{2}, Risa H. Wechsler^{2}, Risa H. Wechsler^{1} +2 more•Institutions (2)

Abstract: We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10 5 CPUs) and runs on the very largest simulations (>10 10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper (Knebe et al. 2011) has shown Rockstar to have class-leading recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results which demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or satellite average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 400 km s -1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar. Subject headings: dark matter — galaxies: abundances — galaxies: evolution — methods: N-body simulations

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Topics: Halo occupation distribution (67%), Dark matter halo (62%), Halo (57%) ... read more

992 Citations

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Abstract: Lambda Cold Dark Matter (?CDM) is now the standard theory of structure formation in the universe. We present the first results from the new Bolshoi dissipationless cosmological ?CDM simulation that uses cosmological parameters favored by current observations. The Bolshoi simulation was run in a volume 250 h ?1?Mpc on a side using ~8 billion particles with mass and force resolution adequate to follow subhalos down to the completeness limit of V circ = 50?km?s?1 maximum circular velocity. Using merger trees derived from analysis of 180 stored time steps we find the circular velocities of satellites before they fall into their host halos. Using excellent statistics of halos and subhalos (~10 million at every moment and ~50 million over the whole history) we present accurate approximations for statistics such as the halo mass function, the concentrations for distinct halos and subhalos, the abundance of halos as a function of their circular velocity, and the abundance and the spatial distribution of subhalos. We find that at high redshifts the concentration falls to a minimum value of about 4.0 and then rises for higher values of halo mass?a new result. We present approximations for the velocity and mass functions of distinct halos as a function of redshift. We find that while the Sheth-Tormen (ST) approximation for the mass function of halos found by spherical overdensity is quite accurate at low redshifts, the ST formula overpredicts the abundance of halos by nearly an order of magnitude by z = 10. We find that the number of subhalos scales with the circular velocity of the host halo as V 1/2 host, and that subhalos have nearly the same radial distribution as dark matter particles at radii 0.3-2 times the host halo virial radius. The subhalo velocity function N(> V sub) scales as V ?3 circ. Combining the results of Bolshoi and Via Lactea-II simulations, we find that inside the virial radius of halos with the number of satellites is N(> V sub) = (V sub/58 km s?1)?3 for satellite circular velocities in the range 4 km s?1 < V sub < 150 km s?1.

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Topics: Halo mass function (70%), Halo (53%), Cold dark matter (53%) ... read more

952 Citations

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Abstract: We present the first results from the new Bolshoi N-body cosmological LCDM simulation that uses cosmological parameters favored by current observations. The Bolshoi simulation was done in a volume 250Mpc on a side using 8billion particles with mass and force resolution adequate to follow subhalos down to a completeness limit of Vcirc=50km/ s circular velocity. Using excellent statistics of halos and subhalos (10M at every moment and 50M over the whole history) we present accurate approximations for statistics such as the halo mass function, the concentrations for distinct halos and subhalos, abundance of halos as function of their circular velocity, the abundance and the spatial distribution of subhalos. We find that at high redshifts the concentration falls to a minimum of about 3.8 and then rises slightly for higher values of halo mass. We find that while the Sheth-Tormen approximation for the mass function of halos found by spherical overdensity is accurate at low redshifts, it over-predicts the abundance of halos by nearly an order of magnitude by z=10. We find that the number of subhalos scales with the circular velocity of the host halo as Vhost**0.5, and that subhalos have nearly the same radial distribution as dark matter particles at radii 0.3-2 times the host halo virial radius. The subhalo velocity function n(>V) behaves as V**(-3). We give normalization of this relation for different masses and redshifts. Finally, we use an abundance-matching procedure to assign r-band luminosities to dark matter halos as a function of halo Vcirc, and find that the luminosity-velocity relation is in remarkably good agreement with the observed Tully-Fisher relation for galaxies in the range 50-200km/s.

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Topics: Halo mass function (71%), Halo (56%), Dark matter (53%) ... read more

852 Citations