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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EDUCSCI11030097

Assessing the Differential Effects of Peer Tutoring for Tutors and Tutees

02 Mar 2021-Education Sciences (MDPI AG)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 97
Abstract: There is strong evidence that peer tutoring, as a form of cooperative learning, has a positive impact on tutor and tutee outcomes. However, little previous research has been reported as to the differential effects of engaging in cooperative learning in dyads for peer tutors and peer tutees, respectively. A randomised controlled experimental study was undertaken involving 295, 11- to 13-year-old students, drawn from 12 classrooms, across three secondary/high schools situated in areas of low-socio-economic status, in the north east of England. In total, 146 students engaged in cooperative learning for a period of 12 weeks, and 149 students served as a comparison group. Gains were significantly greater on independent standardised reading comprehension tests for those engaged in cooperative learning than those in comparison classes, and greater for tutors than tutees. The results are explored by critically reflecting on the underlying theories of education that may be at play in classrooms using this form of cooperative learning.

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Topics: Cooperative learning (64%), Peer tutor (61%), Reading comprehension (51%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJER.2019.02.016
Abstract: A randomized controlled trial of peer tutoring was undertaken in 60 Grade 6/Year 7, and 60 Grade 8/Year 9 classrooms (1299 Grade 6/Year 7 students and 1275 Grade 8/Year 9 students). Grade 8/Year 9 students acted as reading tutors to Grade 6/Year 7 students. Reading attainment was measured with an independent commercially available standardized reading attainment test with two sub-scales, sentence completion and passage comprehension. Results of multi-level modeling indicated significant gains in sentence completion for students acting as tutors in the bottom decile of reading, with no gains, nor deficits observed in the sample as a whole.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJEDRO.2020.100004
Allen Thurston1, Allen Thurston2, Cary J. Roseth3, Tien-Hui Chiang2  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
23 Jun 2020-
Abstract: Reciprocal peer tutoring in mathematics was conducted with 487, ten to twelve year-old students from 20 elementary schools in three different school districts. The peer tutoring technique, a form of paired mathematics, placed specific emphasis on mediation through strategic metacognition between tutor and tutee. Student mathematics attainment significantly increased using this technique (Effect Size=+0.43). Student perception of the social status of their tutoring partner influenced attainment outcomes. Greatest mathematics attainment gains were predicted by having a higher opinion of the cognitive ability of students’ mathematics tutoring partner and by having a mathematics tutoring partner that you believed was less popular. After peer tutoring, students showed increased social relationships in and out of school. Gains in social relationships were indicative of a more inclusive classroom being developed. The implications for theory, policy, practice and future research are discussed.

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Topics: Peer tutor (61%), Elementary mathematics (52%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5430/IJHE.V10N7P53
Abstract: The rapid spread of online classes in higher education during and after the COVID-19 pandemic has created a growing need for research that explores the issue of student disengagement in online courses. In this regard, the present study suggests a Peer-Tutoring Online Discussion (POD) class model to increase student engagement in online courses among undergraduate students with diverse sociocultural backgrounds and college majors. The study also examines the impact of the POD approach by exploring the experiences of undergraduate students who took online liberal arts courses that employed the POD model during the 2020 spring semester. Qualitative analysis of discussion data from students indicates that the POD class model includes characteristics that can be especially significant in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as opportunities for relationship-building, self-directed learning based on establishing a rapport, and discussion management that considers time limits.

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Topics: Online discussion (55%), Student engagement (55%), Peer tutor (55%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EDUCSCI11080429
13 Aug 2021-Education Sciences
Abstract: When in doubt, asking a peer can be very helpful. Students learn a lot of social strategies from peers. However, stated preference studies have found that for elementary school students with math questions, they prefer to ask their teacher for help. In this paper, we study revealed preferences instead of stated preferences. We analyzed the behavior of fourth-grade students seeking face-to-face assistance while working on an online math platform. Students started by working independently on the platform, before the teacher selected two or three tutors from among those who have answered 10 questions correctly. Each student was then able to choose between the teacher or one of these tutors when requesting assistance. We studied the students’ preferences over 3 years, involving 88 fourth-grade classes, 2700 students, 1209 sessions with classmate tutors, and a total of 16,485 requests for help when there was an option to choose between a teacher or a classmate. We found that students prefer asking classmates for help three times more than asking their teachers when given the choice. Furthermore, this gap increases from the first to the second semester. We also found that students prefer to request help from classmates of the same sex and of higher academic performance. In this context, students from the two highest tertiles sought help from classmates in the same two tertiles, and students from the medium tertile prefer to seek help from students of the highest tertile. However, students in the two lowest tertiles do not prefer asking for help from students from the top tertile more than from their own tertiles.

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Topics: Context (language use) (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17645/SI.V9I4.4553
Maria Cockerill1, Allen Thurston1, Andy Taylor, Joanne O'Keeffe1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
13 Oct 2021-Social Inclusion
Abstract: This article reports results of a phase 2 exploratory trial of a vocabulary program delivered in elementary schools to improve student’s reading ability, including their comprehension. The intervention was tested as a targeted intervention in classrooms with children aged 7–10 across 20 weeks during one school year, with eligible students learning in small groups of four. Teachers and support staff received training in this cooperative learning approach to develop children’s vocabulary with particular focus on Tier‐2 words. School staff received additional support and resources to equip them to develop and implement the vocabulary instruction sessions to targeted students. The trial was undertaken with a sample of 101 students in seven schools from three English district areas with high levels of socio‐economic disadvantage. A standardized reading test was used to measure reading outcomes, with significant gains found in student’s overall reading ability, including comprehension. Owing to the positive results found in this trial, including positive feedback about implementation of the technique, next steps should be a larger trial with 48 schools to avoid the risk of sampling error due to limited number of schools.

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Topics: Reading comprehension (59%), Vocabulary (58%), Primary education (55%) ... read more

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27 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2066038
Topics: Practice theory (55%)

14,667 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.PSYCH.49.1.345
Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Social constructivist perspectives focus on the interdependence of social and individual processes in the co-construction of knowledge. After the impetus for understanding the influence of social and cultural factors on cognition is reviewed, mechanisms hypothesized to account for learning from this perspective are identified, drawing from Piagetian and Vygotskian accounts. The empirical research reviewed illustrates (a) the application of institutional analyses to investigate schooling as a cultural process, (b) the application of interpersonal analyses to examine how interactions promote cognition and learning, and (c) discursive analyses examining and manipulating the patterns and opportunities in instructional conversation. The review concludes with a discussion of the application of this perspective to selected contemporary issues, including: acquiring expertise across domains, assessment, educational equity, and educational reform.

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1,315 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01425699995380
Abstract: The analysis in this paper has its origins in a critical account of the sociology of education (Bernstein, 1975) where the various approaches to the study of sociology were taken as the distinguishing feature of the discourse. This matter was further developed (Bernstein, 1996), with the distinction between vertical and horizontal discourses and their various modalities introduced in the context of differentiating this mode of analysis from more 'Bourdieuan' perspectives. This present paper is concerned with filling out and extending the sketches adumbrated in earlier work in a more accessible form. The model proposed generates a language which relates the internal structure of specialised knowledges, the positional nature of their fields or arenas of practice, identity constructions and their change, and the forms of acquisition for successful performances.

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Topics: Horizontal and vertical (54%)

925 Citations


Open accessBook
30 Nov 1977-
Topics: Cognition (61%)

853 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3102/00346543050002241
Abstract: Five recently published methods for conducting cooperative small-group learning in the classroom, and the experimental studies conducted by the authors of these methods are examined, evaluated, and compared in this study. The five methods are: Aronson’s Jigsaw classroom, DeVries’ Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), Slavin’s Student Teams and Academic Divisions (STAD), the Johnsons’ cooperative learning approach, and the Sharans’ Small-group Teaching method. The former three methods are categorized as Peer-Tutoring methods, while the latter two are classified as examples of a Group-Investigation (G-I) approach. Findings are considered from experimental studies with these five methods, in terms of their differential effects on academic achievement, students’ attitudes, and on ethnic relations in desegregated classrooms. The implications of the distinction between Peer-Tutoring and G-I methods are explored. New directions for research are suggested with these cooperative small-group techniques which appear to exe...

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Topics: Cooperative learning (62%), Jigsaw (53%), Academic achievement (53%)

827 Citations