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Journal ArticleDOI

Assessing the Expectations and Limitations of ASEAN-EU Counter-Terrorism Cooperation

02 Aug 2020-Journal of Asean Studies (Universitas Bina Nusantara)-Vol. 8, Iss: 1, pp 61-80
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the inter-regional security cooperation between ASEAN and the EU with a specific focus on counterterrorism and found that CT cooperation is about facilitating a more comprehensive security governance cooperation where European standards and experience are transferred to Southeast Asia for purposes of regional security and diplomatic relations.
Abstract: This research examines the inter-regional security cooperation between ASEAN and the EU with a specific focus on counterterrorism. The research methods are based on a comparison of regional counterterrorism governance between the two regions and a close reading of Plan of Actions for the enhancement of ASEAN-EU relations documents from 2007 to 2018. The results show that CT cooperation is about facilitating a more comprehensive security governance cooperation where European standards and experience are transferred to Southeast Asia for purposes of regional security and diplomatic relations. In addition, this research also shows that EU-ASEAN CT cooperation has not been geared specifically to combat radicalism, or as part of a Counter Violent Extremism program; rather, the inter-regional cooperation has mainly focused on building a common normative framework in responding to terrorism within the corridor of democracy and preempting the terrorist networks from exploiting connectivity networks. Finally, implementation of security and political cooperation between the EU and ASEAN tend to rely on the existing extra-regional dialogue fora within ASEAN as well as direct engagement between the EU and third parties comprising each of the ASEAN states.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Aug 2022
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined how Pro-IS terrorists exploit loopholes in border and immigration control to join IS abroad and the shortcoming in Indonesian government strategy to counter their mobility, and found that Indonesia needs improvement in human resources, law enforcement, immigration management, border control, as well as cross-border cooperation.
Abstract: Transnational terrorism has been a worldwide challenge, especially after the declaration of Islamic State (IS) that was based in Syria and Iraq in 2014. By 2017, most foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) from Southeast Asia were Indonesian nationals, of almost 700 individuals. The actual number might be higher as some departed to Syria and other destination countries, like Afghanistan, the Philippines, and India, undetected. The research aimed to examine how Pro-IS terrorists exploit loopholes in border and immigration control to join IS abroad and the shortcoming in Indonesian government strategy to counter their mobility. The novelty of the research rested on its use of Supreme Court’s record of 38 Pro-IS deportees to build a dataset of their profile and travel history from 2016 to 2020. Profile of individual deportee was categorized into demography, affiliation, and funding. Travel history was mapped in accordance with the point of departure in Indonesia, transit country, final destination, and location where the arrest took place- which then led to deportation. The research finds that Indonesia needs improvement in human resources, law enforcement, immigration management, border control, as well as cross-border cooperation.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jul 2022
TL;DR: Gülzau et al. as discussed by the authors discussed that connectivity enables a regional integration project to be economically sustainable and resilient against external shocks, and that regional integration should facilitate the mobility of welcomed and trusted travellers while concentrating their control resources on those prone to irregular forms of migration.
Abstract: It has been widely discussed in the literature on regionalism that connectivity and mobility are two critical concepts that underpin the deepening of the regional integration project. Connectivity allows increased mobility of ideas, people, and goods, creating a more robust regional community. Connectivity enables a regional integration project to be economically sustainable and resilient against external shocks (Bhattacharyay, 2010). Arguably, regional integration should facilitate the mobility of welcomed and trusted travellers while concentrating their control resources on those prone to ‘irregular’ forms of migration. As a result, regional integration often deepens the establishment or reconfiguration of mobility spaces (Gülzau et al., 2016).
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the problem of human trafficking and its patterns within the region, before assessing the current anti-trafficking programmes and policies developed by regional institutions in East Asia and the South Pacific.
Abstract: In recent years there has been a marked increase in human trafficking across the borders of Asia-Pacific states. In addressing this problem, regional states have found that unilateral actions are insufficient to stem the flows of trafficked persons. In response to this shortfall in capacity a number of arrangements have been initiated by regional institutions. The purpose of this article is to analyse the efficacy of these institutional arrangements. This article discusses the problem of human trafficking and its patterns within the region, before assessing the current anti-trafficking programmes and policies developed by regional institutions in East Asia and the South Pacific. The article then reviews trans-regional efforts being undertaken through the ASEAN Regional Forum, including the Asia-Europe Meeting and the Bali Process. In concluding, it is suggested that while the regional institutions remain captured by state interests they are nonetheless an important vehicle in combating human trafficking in the Asia Pacific.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored how the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has tackled the threat of terrorism since 9/11 and the Bali bombings and claimed that ASEAN has applied its traditional approach to security, based on comprehensive security and the principle of resilience, when addressing this challenge.
Abstract: This paper explores how the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has tackled the threat of terrorism since 9/11 and the Bali bombings. It claims that ASEAN has applied its traditional approach to security, based on comprehensive security and the principle of resilience, when addressing this challenge. The resilience concept underpins the nexus between national and regional security and emphasizes domestic regime consolidation re-enforced by regional consultations. In their pursuit of resilience, member states have sought in various degrees to address terrorism domestically through a mixture of security, law enforcement, socio-economic, ideological, and educational policies. It is noted that Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore have tackled terrorism more comprehensively than Thailand and Malaysia. Reflecting the synergy between national and regional resilience, ASEAN has operated as an umbrella organization meant to complement domestic and sub-regional efforts. It has been committe...

24 citations


"Assessing the Expectations and Limi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The length with which the ACCT undertook to achieve full ratification testifies to the gradual character of enforcement mechanism and the tradition of ASEAN to implement regional initiatives at a pace comfortable to all member-states (Emmers, 2009)....

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  • ...implement regional initiatives at a pace comfortable to all member-states (Emmers, 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors ask how successful official efforts have been at disengaging those convicted under Indonesia's Anti-Terrorism Law from violent extremism, drawing on 20 selected interviews with former jihadists.
Abstract: While Indonesia’s efforts at countering violent extremism have enjoyed some successes, a section of its Islamist community remains committed to militant jihadism. The return from overseas of hundreds of militants linked to ISIS means that there is now a greater need than ever for interventions to prevent radicalisation – and for programs to reintegrate militants back into society. Drawing on 20 selected interviews with former jihadists, this article asks how successful official efforts have been at disengaging those convicted under Indonesia’s Anti-Terrorism Law from violent extremism. A significant minority remain welded to a militant mindset: “committed jihadists” who are likely to reoffend. Some former jihadists have “disengaged provisionally” but remain vulnerable: they have only disengaged for tactical or practical reasons. Yet some have also begun to disengage emotionally. While they may not disavow completely the use of force, these “provisionally deradicalised” activists have moved closer ...

24 citations


"Assessing the Expectations and Limi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Ideological drive that originally mobilizes puritan Sunni Muslims against Shia in Syria and Iraq could serve as the ideological driver for terrorist cells in countries where Sunni-Shia friction is almost unknown such as Indonesia (Chalmers, 2017)....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that interregionalism research is still a highly Eurocentric research agenda, aggravating the Western-centric tendencies in theorising on international relations and comparative studies are almost entirely absent, and that scholars should also act as policy advisors, stressing the significance of a legalised, contractualised and institutionalised system of global governance.
Abstract: Although studies on interregionalism currently struggle with a deadlock, the author argues that there is still space for innovation. The argument is developed in three steps: first, the author summarises major findings of previous studies on interregional relations. This is followed by a discussion of Robles’ sweeping critique of the state-of-the-art of interregionalism studies with the objective of showing that much of this critique is unfounded and that it is possible to take previous studies on interregionalism as a point of departure for more innovative work. From there, the author proceeds in a third step towards sketching an agenda for future research built around institutional balancing and hedging, network analysis and interregional relations as norm transmitters. At the end of the chapter, the author identifies three points in need of future attention: (i) interregionalism research is still a highly Eurocentric research agenda, aggravating the Western-centric tendencies in theorising on international relations; (ii) comparative studies on interregionalism are almost entirely absent; and (iii) if interregionalism is to become more than an epiphenomenon of international relations and regionalism, scholars should also act as policy advisors, stressing the significance of a legalised, contractualised and institutionalised system of global governance.

23 citations


"Assessing the Expectations and Limi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The growing literature on interregional relations suggest that the functions performed by existing interregional relations have the potential of establishing a critical component for an emerging, both horizontally and vertically differentiated, and multi-layered global "governance architecture" (Rüland, 2014)....

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  • ...…literature on interregional relations suggest that the functions performed by existing interregional relations have the potential of establishing a critical component for an emerging, both horizontally and vertically differentiated, and multi-layered global "governance architecture" (Rüland, 2014)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The European Union has a long tradition of interregional dialogue mechanisms with other regional organisations and is using these relations to project its own model of institutionalised actorness as discussed by the authors. But there are clear limits to the development of the three components of regional actorness.
Abstract: The European Union (EU) has a long tradition of interregional dialogue mechanisms with other regional organisations and is using these relations to project its own model of institutionalised actorness. This is partly motivated by the emerging actorness of the EU itself, which benefits from fostering capable regional counterparts in other parts of the world. This article advances the argument that actorness, which we conceptualise in terms of institutions, recognition and identity, is a relational concept, dependent on context and perception. Taking the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and their relations with the EU as case studies, this article demonstrates that the actorness capabilities of all three organisations have been enhanced as result of ASEAN-EU and Mercosur-EU relations. However, there are clear limits to the development of the three components of regional actorness and to the interregional relations themselves. These limits stem both from the type of interregionalism at play and from the different regional models the actors incorporate. While there is evidence of institutional enhancement in ASEAN and Mercosur, these formal changes have been grafted on top of firmly entrenched normative underpinnings. Within the regional organisations, interactions with the EU generate centrifugal forces concerning the model to pursue, thus limiting their institutional cohesion and capacity. In addition, group-to-group relations have reinforced ASEAN and Mercosur identities in contrast to the EU. The formation of such differences has narrowed the scope of EU interregionalism despite the initial success of improved regional actorness.

22 citations


"Assessing the Expectations and Limi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This is also applied to CT arrangements that are implemented under Justice and Home Affairs (JHA); in which JHA only plays a coordinating role since the issue’s locus is located within the jurisdiction of member countries....

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  • ...The substance of the joint declaration is further elaborated in the EU’s ASEAN strategy paper which presented six priority strategies for EU’s engagement with ASEAN, including support for stability and CT policies in Southeast Asia, poverty reduction, EU-ASEAN economic relations and respect for human rights, democracy and good governance, and mainstreaming the role of the EU’s Justice and Home Affairs (Mattheis & Wunderlich, 2017)....

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  • ...…EU’s engagement with ASEAN, including support for stability and CT policies in Southeast Asia, poverty reduction, EU-ASEAN economic relations and respect for human rights, democracy and good governance, and mainstreaming the role of the EU’s Justice and Home Affairs (Mattheis & Wunderlich, 2017)....

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  • ...As stipulated by Mackenzie et al. (2013), CTC’s tasks comprise of coordination of CT work (including multiple working groups and working parties) with Justice and Home Affairs, an overview of relevant EU instruments for CT, effective executions of Council decisions, oversight of the implementation of EU CT strategy and its report to the council, sustaining communication between the EU and third countries, and active role maintenance of CT as a whole (Mackenzie et al., 2013)....

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