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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/REGO.12392

Assessing the regulatory challenges of emerging disruptive technologies

04 Mar 2021-Regulation & Governance (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 15, Iss: 4, pp 1009-1019
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed the emergence of many technologies that have the potential to fundamentally alter our economic, social, and indeed personal lives. The problems they pose are in many ways unprecedented, posing serious challenges for policymakers. How should governments respond to the challenges given that the technologies are still evolving with unclear trajectories? Are there general principles that can be developed to design governance arrangements for these technologies? These are questions confronting policymakers around the world and it is the objective of this special issue to offer insights into answering them both in general and with respect to specific emerging disruptive technologies. Our objectives are to help better understand the regulatory challenges posed by disruptive technologies and to develop generalizable propositions for governments' responses to them.

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Topics: Emerging technologies (57%)
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Open access
01 Jan 2015-
Abstract: U.S. privacy law is under attack. Scholars and advocates criticize it as weak, incomplete, and confusing, and argue that it fails to empower individuals to control the use of their personal information. These critiques present a largely accurate description of the law “on the books.” But the debate has strangely ignored privacy “on the ground” - since 1994, no one has conducted a sustained inquiry into how corporations actually manage privacy, and what motivates them. This Article presents findings from the first study of corporate privacy management in fifteen years, involving qualitative interviews with Chief Privacy Officers identified by their peers as industry leaders. Spurred by these findings, we present a descriptive account of privacy “on the ground” that upends the terms of the prevailing policy debate. This alternative account identifies elements neglected by the traditional story - the emergence of the Federal Trade Commission as a privacy regulator, the increasing influence of privacy advocates, market and media pressures for privacy-protection, and the rise of privacy professionals - and traces the ways in which these players supplemented a privacy debate largely focused on processes (such as notice and consent mechanisms) with a growing emphasis on substance: preventing violations of consumers’ expectations of privacy. This “grounded” account should inform privacy reforms. While widespread efforts to expand consent mechanisms to empower individuals to control their personal information may offer some promise, those efforts should not proceed in a way that eclipses robust substantive definitions of privacy and the protections they are beginning to produce, or that constrains the regulatory flexibility that permits their evolution. This would destroy important tools for limiting corporate over-reaching, curbing consumer manipulation, and protecting shared expectations about the personal sphere on the Internet, and in the marketplace.

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9 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: textRecently we have witnessed the worldwide adoption of many different types of innovative technologies, such as crowdsourcing, ridesharing, open and big data, aiming at delivering public services more efficiently and effectively. Among them, ridesharing has received substantial attention from decision-makers around the world. Because of the multitude of currently understood or potentially unknown risks associated with ridesharing (unemployment, insurance, information privacy, and environmental risk), governments in different countries apply different strategies to address such risks. Some governments prohibit the adoption of ridesharing altogether, while other governments promote it. In this article, we address the question of how risks involved in ridesharing are governed over time. We present an in-depth single case study on Singapore and examine how the Singaporean government has addressed risks in ridesharing over time. The Singaporean government has a strong ambition to become an innovation hub, and many innovative technologies have been adopted and promoted to that end. At the same time, decision-makers in Singapore are reputed for their proactive style of social governance. The example of Singapore can be regarded as a revelatory case study, helping us further to explore governance practices in other countries.

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Topics: Government (53%), Corporate governance (51%)

6 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/REGO.12335
Alberto Asquer1, Inna Krachkovskaya1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This study aims to improve theoretical accounts of regulatory responses to emerging technologies by proposing a model of regulatory development, which incorporates a role for types of uncertainty and for existing regulatory institutions Differently from existing theories of regulatory development, the model proposed here posits a sequence of cyclical activities where regulatory responses arise in incremental fashion out of efforts to make sense of emerging technologies and to ponder the applicability of existing regulatory tools The model is discussed on the basis of the comparison between regulatory responses to the emergence of CRISPR gene editing in the US and the EU in the period 2012–2019 The comparison between the two cases suggests how regulatory responses to emerging technologies are affected by expectations of future technological and regulatory developments and by existing regulatory institutions

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13116474
01 Jun 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Smart and sustainable cities rely on innovative technologies to cater to the needs of their constituents. One such need is for sustainable transport. Ridesharing is one of the ways through which sustainable transport can be deployed in smart cities. Ridesharing entered Southeast Asia in 2013, changing the nature of transportation in the region. As with other disruptive innovations, the introduction of ridesharing comes with risks particularly to employment relations, data privacy, road congestion, and distribution of liability. Regulators across various countries have applied different strategies to govern these risks. We present a case study of five Southeast Asian countries, namely Singapore, the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia, and examine how government authorities in these countries have governed the risks of ridesharing. Smart cities can effectively provide the sustainable transport needs of their constituents by taking a consistent and unified regulatory approach with new technologies and cooperating with regulators across different jurisdictions. Stakeholders should also be involved in the regulatory process to increase the acceptance of new technologies for transport. Smart cities can also deploy regulatory sandboxes and take a proactive governance approach to encourage the development of these new technologies and at the same time control their undesirable risks.

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3 Citations


References
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71 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1971-
Abstract: The state—the machinery and power of the state—is a potential resource or threat to every industry in the society. With its power to prohibit or compel, to take or give money, the state can and does selectively help or hurt a vast number of industries. Regulation may be actively sought by an industry, or it may be thrust upon it. A central thesis of this paper is that, as a rule, regulation is acquired by the industry and is designed and operated primarily for its benefit. The state has one basic resource which in pure principle is not shared with even the mightiest of its citizens: the power to coerce. The state can seize money by the only method which is permitted by the laws of a civilized society, by taxation. The state can ordain the physical movements of resources and the economic decisions of households and firms without their consent.

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Topics: Public interest theory (53%)

7,710 Citations


Open accessBook
Millett Granger Morgan1, Max Henrion1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1990-
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction 2. Recent milestones 3. An overview of quantitative policy analysis 4. The nature and sources of uncertainty 5. Probability distributions and statistical estimation 6. Human judgement about and with uncertainty 7. Performing probability assessment 8. The propagation and analysis of uncertainty 9. The graphic communication of uncertainty 10. Analytica: a software tool for uncertainty analysis 11. Large and complex models 12. The value of knowing how little you know Index.

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2,623 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S0020818300018920
Stephen D. Krasner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: International regimes are defined as principles, norms, rules, and decisionmaking procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given issue-area. As a starting point, regimes have been conceptualized as intervening variables, standing between basic causal factors and related outcomes and behavior. There are three views about the importance of regimes: conventional structural orientations dismiss regimes as being at best ineffectual; Grotian orientations view regimes as an intimate component of the international system; and modified structural perspectives see regimes as significant only under certain constrained conditions. For Grotian and modified structuralist arguments, which endorse the view that regimes can influence outcomes and behavior, regime development is seen as a function of five basic causal variables: egoistic self-interest, political power, diffuse norms and principles, custom and usage, and knowledge.

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Topics: Regime theory (53%), International regime (51%)

2,210 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-1-349-15486-9_10
Abstract: Current economic doctrine offers to its students a basic relationship between the number of firms that produce for a given market and the degree to which competitive results will prevail. Stated explicitly or suggested implicitly is the doctrine that price and output can be expected to diverge to a greater extent from their competitive levels the fewer the firms that produce the product for the market. This relationship has provided the logic that motivates much of the research devoted to studying industrial concentration, and it has given considerable support to utility regulation.2

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Topics: Product (category theory) (55%), Doctrine (52%)

1,274 Citations


BookDOI: 10.1515/9781400835119
24 Apr 2014-
Abstract: LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix LIST OF TABLES xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS xvii INTRODUCTION: The Gatekeeper 1 CHAPTER ONE: Reputation and Regulatory Power 33 PART ONE: ORGANIZATIONAL EMPOWERMENT AND CHALLENGE CHAPTER TWO: Reputation and Gatekeeping Authority: The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and Its Aftermath 73 CHAPTER THREE: The Ambiguous Emergence of American Pharmaceutical Regulation, 1944-1961 118 CHAPTER FOUR: Reputation and Power Crystallized: Thalidomide, Frances Kelsey, and Phased Experiment, 1961-1966 228 CHAPTER FIVE: Reputation and Power Institutionalized: Scientific Networks, Congressional Hearings, and Judicial Affirmation, 1963-1986 298 CHAPTER SIX: Reputation and Power Contested: Emboldened Audiences in Cancer and AIDS, 1977-1992 393 PART TWO: PHARMACEUTICAL REGULATION AND ITS AUDIENCES CHAPTER SEVEN: Reputation and the Organizational Politics of New Drug Review 465 CHAPTER EIGHT: The Governance of Research and Development: Gatekeeping Power, Conceptual Guidance, and Regulation by Satellite 544 CHAPTER NINE: The Other Side of the Gate: Reputation, Power, and Post-Market Regulation 585 CHAPTER TEN: The Detente of Firm and Regulator 635 CHAPTER ELEVEN: American Pharmaceutical Regulation in International Context: Audiences, Comparisons, and Dependencies 686 CHAPTER TWELVE: Conclusion: A Reputation in Relief 727 PRIMARY SOURCES AND ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS 753 INDEX 759

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Topics: Reputation (53%)

695 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20215
20181
20151
20051