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Journal ArticleDOI

Assessment of the impact of pesticide residues on microbiological and biochemical parameters of tea garden soils in India

TL;DR: The tea garden soils contained variable residues of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, which negatively affected the MBC, BSR, SIR, FDHA and β -glucosidase activity.
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of pesticidal residues on soil microbial and biochemical parameters of the tea garden soils. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal (BSR) and substrate induced respirations (SIR), β -glucosidase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (FDHA) of six tea garden soils, along with two adjacent forest soils (control) in West Bengal, India were measured. The biomass and its activities and biochemical parameters were generally lower in the tea garden soils than the control soils. The MBC of the soils ranged from 295.5 to 767.5 μ g g− 1. The BSR and SIR ranged from 1.65 to 3.08 μ g CO2-C g− 1 soil h− 1 and 3.08 to 10.76 μ g CO2-C g− 1h− 1 respectively. The β -glucosidase and FDHA of the soils varied from 33.3 and 76.3 μ g para-nitrophenol g− 1 soil h− 1 and 60.5 to 173.5 μ g fluorescein g− 1h− 1respectively. The tea garden soils contained variable residues of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, which negatively affected the MBC, BS...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L.
Abstract: B6nassy, C., 1955. R6marques sur deux Aphelinid6s: Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron et Aphytis proclia Walker. Annls l~piphyt. 6: 11-17. Lord, F. T. & MacPhee, A. W., 1953. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia II. Oyster shell scale. Can. Ent. 79: 196-209. Pickett, A. D., 1946. A progress report on long term spray programs. Rep. Nova Scotia Fruit Grow. Ass. 83 : 27-31. Pickett, A. D., 1967. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV. Can. Ent. 97: 816-821. Tothill, J. D., 1918. The predacious mite Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L. Agric. Gaz. Can. 5 : 234-239.

1,506 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Genome analysis and experimental evidence suggested that AB211 has robust central carbohydrate metabolism implying that this bacterium can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as an energy source.
Abstract: Bacillus aryabhattai AB211 is a plant growth promoting, gram positive firmicute, isolated from the rhizosphere of tea (Camellia sinensis), one of the oldest perennial crops and a major nonalcoholic beverage widely consumed all over the world. The whole genome of B. aryabhattai AB211 was sequenced, annotated and evaluated with special focus on genomic elements related to plant microbe interaction. It's genome sequence reveals the presence of a 5,403,026 bp chromosome. A total of 5226 putative protein-coding sequences, 16 rRNA, 120 tRNA, 8 ncRNAs, 58 non-protein coding genes, and 11 prophage regions were identified. Genome sequence comparisons between strain AB211 and other related environmental strains of B. aryabhattai, identified about 3558 genes conserved among all B. aryabhattai genomes analyzed. Most of the common genes involved in plant growth promotion activities were found to be present within core genes of all the genomes used for comparison, illustrating possible common plant growth promoting traits shared among all the strains of B. aryabhattai. Besides the core genes, some genes were exclusively identified in the genome of strain AB211. Functional annotation of the genes predicted in the strain AB211 revealed the presence of genes responsible for mineral phosphate solubilization, siderophores, acetoin, butanediol, exopolysaccharides, flagella biosynthesis, surface attachment/ biofilm formation, and indole acetic acid production, most of which were experimentally verified in the present study. Genome analysis and experimental evidence suggested that AB211 has robust central carbohydrate metabolism implying that this bacterium can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as an energy source. Genes for the production of peroxidases, catalases, and superoxide dismutases, that confer resistance to oxidative stresses in plants were identified in AB211 genome. Besides these, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance, glycine-betaine production, and antibiotic /heavy metal resistance that enable bacteria to survive biotic/abiotic stress were also identified. Based on the genome sequence information and experimental evidence as presented in this study, strain AB211 appears to be metabolically diverse and exhibits tremendous potential as a plant growth promoting bacterium.

78 citations


Cites background from "Assessment of the impact of pestici..."

  • ...Bacterial degradation of pesticides/fungicides has been reported in diverse agricultural soil (Bishnu et al., 2012; Verma et al., 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicated that the pretreatment with rhizobacterial consortia increased resistance of the rice plants towards the common foliar pathogen like R. solani AG1-IA, which supports the idea of the application of plant growth-promoting rhizOBacterial consortsia in sustainable crop practice through the management of biotic stress under field conditions.
Abstract: A total of 120 rhizobacteria were isolated from seven different tea estates of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Based on a functional screening of in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) activities, thirty potential rhizobacterial isolates were selected for in-planta evaluation of PGP activities in rice and maize crops. All the thirty rhizobacterial isolates were identified using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Out of thirty rhizobacteria, sixteen (53.3%) isolates belong to genus Bacillus, five (16.6%) represent genus Staphylococcus, three (10%) represent genus Ochrobactrum, and one (3.3%) isolate each belongs to genera Pseudomonas, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Leifsonia, Exiguobacterium, and Arthrobacter. Treatment of rice and maize seedlings with these thirty rhizobacterial isolates resulted in growth promotion. Besides, rhizobacterial treatment in rice triggered enzymatic [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), chitinase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)], and non-enzymatic [proline and polyphenolics] antioxidative defense reactions indicating their possible role in the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burden and thereby priming of plants towards stress mitigation. To understand such a possibility, we tested the effect of rhizobacterial consortia on biotic stress tolerance of rice against necrotrophic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA. Our results indicated that the pretreatment with rhizobacterial consortia increased resistance of the rice plants towards the common foliar pathogen like R. solani AG1-IA. This study supports the idea of the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial consortia in sustainable crop practice through the management of biotic stress under field conditions.

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The short-term effects of advanced-TWW irrigation on microbial parameters of Vertic xerofluvent soil were revealed and the feasibility of wastewater reuse for irrigation was assessed.
Abstract: Approximately 70% of the world water use, including all the water diverted from rivers and pumped from underground, is used for agricultural irrigation, so the reuse of treated domestic wastewater (TWW) for purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation reduces the amount of water that needs to be extracted from natural water sources as well as reducing discharge of wastewater to the environment. Thus, TWW is a valuable water source for recycling and reusing in arid and semi-arid regions which are frequently confronting water shortages. In this regard, this study was planned to reveal the short-term effects of advanced-TWW irrigation on microbial parameters of Vertic xerofluvent soil. For this purpose, certain parameters were measured in the study, including soil total organic carbon (C org ), N-mineralization (N min ), microbial biomass carbon (C mic ), soil microbial quotient (C mic /C org ) and the activities of the enzymes dehydrogenase (DHG), urease (UA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKPA), β-glucosidase (GLU) and aryl sulphatase (ArSA) in soils irrigated with TWW and fresh water (FW). All of the microbial parameters were negatively affected by TWW irrigation. Microbial parameters decreased by 10.1%–54.1% in comparison with the FW plots. This decrease especially in enzymatic activities of soil irrigated with TWW, presumably due to some heavy metals inhibited their activity associated with the soil types and the concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater. In contrast, C mic /C org was found higher in the plots irrigated with TWW at the end of the experiment. The addition of organic matter to soil by irrigation with TWW is cause for the increase in this ratio. The dose of irrigation should be modified to reduce the quantity and to increase the frequency of application to avoid the loss of aggregation and salt accumulation. TWW irrigation is a strategy with many benefits to agricultural land management; however, long-term studies should be implemented to investigate the microbiological characteristics of soil and to assess the feasibility of wastewater reuse for irrigation.

48 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: A survey of the effect of diverse pesticides on the activity of enzymes in soils from different origins can be found in this paper, where the influence of soil enzyme activity by the presence of pesticide residues, repeated application of the same pesticide, the interaction of more than one pesticide applied in combination, the simultaneous presence of organic amendments or inorganic pollutants.
Abstract: Pesticides are one of the major products developed by man in the last century. They may have a beneficial impact on agricultural productivity, but they are also a potential hazard to the environment. In the soil, enzymes, contributing under different states to the total biological activity of soil–plant environment, may be strongly influenced by pesticides, which are usually extraneous to the normal pool of soil components. The present chapter provides a survey of the old and recent findings obtained on the effect of diverse pesticides on the activity of enzymes in soils from different origins. Information is also given on the influence on soil enzyme activity by the presence of pesticide residues, the repeated application of the same pesticide, the interaction of more than one pesticide applied in combination, the simultaneous presence of organic amendments or inorganic pollutants. Most of the studies were performed under field conditions though much information was also achieved by laboratory experiments.

23 citations


Cites background from "Assessment of the impact of pestici..."

  • ...By contrast, residues of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides (chlorpyrifos, ethion, a endosulfan, b endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate) were found in six tea garden soils and two adjacent forest soils (control) in West Bengal, India, and had a strong impact on some soil microbial and biochemical components (MBC, BSR, SIR, FDAH, and b-glucosidase activity) ( Bishnu et al. 2008 )....

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References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of fumigation on organic C extractable by 0.5 m K2SO4 were examined in a contrasting range of soils and it was shown that both ATP and organic C rendered decomposable by CHCl3 came from the soil microbial biomass.
Abstract: The effects of fumigation on organic C extractable by 0.5 M K2SO4 were examined in a contrasting range of soils. EC (the difference between organic C extracted by 0.5 M K2SO4 from fumigated and non-fumigated soil) was about 70% of FC (the flush of CO2-C caused by fumigation during a 10 day incubation), meaned for ten soils. There was a close relationship between microbial biomass C, measured by fumigation-incubation (from the relationship Biomass C = FC/0.45) and EC given by the equation: Biomass C = (2.64 ± 0.060) EC that accounted for 99.2% of the variance in the data. This relationship held over a wide range of soil pH (3.9–8.0). ATP and microbial biomass N concentrations were measured in four of the soils. The (ATP)(EC) ratios were very similar in the four soils, suggesting that both ATP and the organic C rendered decomposable by CHCl3 came from the soil microbial biomass. The C:N ratio of the biomass in a strongly acid (pH 4.2) soil was greater (9.4) than in the three less-acid soils (mean C:N ratio 5.1). We propose that the organic C rendered extractable to 0.5 m K2SO4 after a 24 h CHCl3-fumigation (EC) comes from the cells of the microbial biomass and can be used to estimate soil microbial biomass C in both neutral and acid soils.

9,975 citations


"Assessment of the impact of pestici..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The extracted sample was used for the estimation of carbon by K2Cr2O7 oxidation method using ferroin indicator.[9] The difference in extracted carbon between the fumigated and unfumigated divided by the calibration factor of 0....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The respiratory method provides reproducible estimates of biomass size within 1–3 h after soil amendment, and can be combined without difficulty with a selective inhibition method for determination of bacterial and fungal contributions to soil metabolism.
Abstract: A method is described for the rapid and objective estimation of the amount of carbon in the living, non-resting microbial biomass of soils. The method, which is based on the initial respiratory response of microbial populations to amendment with an excess of a carbon and energy source, was quantified using an expanded version of Jenkinson's technique. The simultaneous application of the two methods to 50 soil samples showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.96) between both. From this correlation it could be deduced that at 22°C, a substrate-induced maximal respiratory rate of 1 ml CO2· h−1 corresponds to c. 40 mg microbial biomass C. Evidence supporting these results was obtained from pure culture studies. The various soil types investigated were collected from agricultural as well as forest sites and they contained between 15 and 240 mg microbial C·100g dry soil−1. The respiratory method provides reproducible estimates of biomass size within 1–3 h after soil amendment. It can be combined without difficulty with a selective inhibition method for determination of bacterial and fungal contributions to soil metabolism.

2,787 citations

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Quality Control and Quality Assurance in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry and field methods.
Abstract: (Chapter Headings): Introduction. Quality Control and Quality Assurance in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Soil Sampling, Handling, Storage, And Analysis. Enrichment, Isolation and Counting of Soil Microorganisms. Estimation of Microbial Activities. Anaerobic Microbial Activities in Soil. Enzyme Activities. Micorbial Biomass. Community Structure. Field Methods. Bioremediation of Soil. Subject Index.

2,125 citations


"Assessment of the impact of pestici..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The MBC was determined by fumigation-extraction method.[8] Two portions of the moist soils equivalent to 10 g oven dry weight were taken....

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01 Jan 1981

1,643 citations


"Assessment of the impact of pestici..." refers result in this paper

  • ...[13] This is in accordance with a report [14], wherein it was stated that MBC ranged from 98 to 230 mg kg−1 and the forest soils had higher MBC than the low, high and middle tea production areas....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L.
Abstract: B6nassy, C., 1955. R6marques sur deux Aphelinid6s: Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron et Aphytis proclia Walker. Annls l~piphyt. 6: 11-17. Lord, F. T. & MacPhee, A. W., 1953. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia II. Oyster shell scale. Can. Ent. 79: 196-209. Pickett, A. D., 1946. A progress report on long term spray programs. Rep. Nova Scotia Fruit Grow. Ass. 83 : 27-31. Pickett, A. D., 1967. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia XIV. Can. Ent. 97: 816-821. Tothill, J. D., 1918. The predacious mite Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer and its relation to the natural control of the oyster shell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi L. Agric. Gaz. Can. 5 : 234-239.

1,506 citations


"Assessment of the impact of pestici..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[6] The β-glucosidase is an important enzyme in terrestrial carbon cycle in producing glucose, which contributes important energy source for microbial biomass.[7] The β-glucosidase activity has been suggested as a good indicator of soil quality among other hydrolytic enzyme activities....

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