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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JNC.15336

Astrocytes are HIV reservoirs in the brain: A cell type with poor HIV infectivity and replication but efficient cell-to-cell viral transfer.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Neurochemistry (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 158, Iss: 2, pp 429-443
Abstract: The major barrier to eradicating Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection is the generation of tissue-associated quiescent long-lasting viral reservoirs refractory to therapy. Upon interruption of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), HIV replication can be reactivated. Within the brain, microglia/macrophages and a small population of astrocytes are infected with HIV. However, the role of astrocytes as a potential viral reservoir is becoming more recognized because of the improved detection and quantification of HIV viral reservoirs. In this report, we examined the infectivity of human primary astrocytes in vivo and in vitro, and their capacity to maintain HIV infection, become latently infected, be reactivated, and transfer new HIV virions into neighboring cells. Analysis of human brain tissue sections obtained from HIV-infected individuals under effective and prolonged ART indicates that a small population of astrocytes has integrated HIV-DNA. In vitro experiments using HIV-infected human primary astrocyte cultures confirmed a low percentage of astrocytes had integrated HIV-DNA, with poor to undetectable replication. Even in the absence of ART, long-term culture results in latency that could be transiently reactivated with histone deacetylase inhibitor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), or methamphetamine. Reactivation resulted in poor viral production but efficient cell-to-cell viral transfer into cells that support high viral replication. Together, our data provide a new understanding of astrocytes' role as viral reservoirs within the central nervous system (CNS).

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Topics: Viral replication (56%), Population (52%), Microglia (51%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.735922
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major public health issue. COVID-19 is considered an airway/multi-systemic disease, and demise has been associated with an uncontrolled immune response and a cytokine storm in response to the virus. However, the lung pathology, immune response, and tissue damage associated with COVID-19 demise are poorly described and understood due to safety concerns. Using post-mortem lung tissues from uninfected and COVID-19 deadly cases as well as an unbiased combined analysis of histology, multi-viral and host markers staining, correlative microscopy, confocal, and image analysis, we identified three distinct phenotypes of COVID-19-induced lung damage. First, a COVID-19-induced hemorrhage characterized by minimal immune infiltration and large thrombus; Second, a COVID-19-induced immune infiltration with excessive immune cell infiltration but no hemorrhagic events. The third phenotype correspond to the combination of the two previous ones. We observed the loss of alveolar wall integrity, detachment of lung tissue pieces, fibroblast proliferation, and extensive fibrosis in all three phenotypes. Although lung tissues studied were from lethal COVID-19, a strong immune response was observed in all cases analyzed with significant B cell and poor T cell infiltrations, suggesting an exhausted or compromised immune cellular response in these patients. Overall, our data show that SARS-CoV-2-induced lung damage is highly heterogeneous. These individual differences need to be considered to understand the acute and long-term COVID-19 consequences.

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Topics: Lung injury (65%), Cytokine storm (54%), Immune system (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10071798
16 Jul 2021-Cells
Abstract: Effective antiretroviral therapy has led to significant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) suppression and improvement in immune function. However, the persistence of integrated proviral DNA in latently infected reservoir cells, which drive viral rebound post-interruption of antiretroviral therapy, remains the major roadblock to a cure. Therefore, the targeted elimination or permanent silencing of this latently infected reservoir is a major focus of HIV-1 research. The most studied approach in the development of a cure is the activation of HIV-1 expression to expose latently infected cells for immune clearance while inducing HIV-1 cytotoxicity-the "kick and kill" approach. However, the complex and highly heterogeneous nature of the latent reservoir, combined with the failure of clinical trials to reduce the reservoir size casts doubt on the feasibility of this approach. This concern that total elimination of HIV-1 from the body may not be possible has led to increased emphasis on a "functional cure" where the virus remains but is unable to reactivate which presents the challenge of permanently silencing transcription of HIV-1 for prolonged drug-free remission-a "block and lock" approach. In this review, we discuss the interaction of HIV-1 and autophagy, and the exploitation of autophagy to kill selectively HIV-1 latently infected cells as part of a cure strategy. The cure strategy proposed has the advantage of significantly decreasing the size of the HIV-1 reservoir that can contribute to a functional cure and when optimised has the potential to eradicate completely HIV-1.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.765217
Abstract: Metabolic syndromes are frequently associated with dementia, suggesting that the dysregulation of energy metabolism can increase the risk of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. In addition, growing evidence suggests the link between infections and brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. The immune system and energy metabolism are in an intricate relationship. Infection triggers immune responses, which are accompanied by imbalance in cellular and organismal energy metabolism, while metabolic disorders can lead to immune dysregulation and higher infection susceptibility. In the brain, the activities of brain-resident immune cells, including microglia, are associated with their metabolic signatures, which may be affected by central nervous system (CNS) infection. Conversely, metabolic dysregulation can compromise innate immunity in the brain, leading to enhanced CNS infection susceptibility. Thus, infection and metabolic imbalance can be intertwined to each other in the etiology of brain disorders, including dementia. Insulin and leptin play pivotal roles in the regulation of immunometabolism in the CNS and periphery, and dysfunction of these signaling pathways are associated with cognitive impairment. Meanwhile, infectious complications are often comorbid with diabetes and obesity, which are characterized by insulin resistance and leptin signaling deficiency. Examples include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and periodontal disease caused by an oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. This review explores potential interactions between infectious agents and insulin and leptin signaling pathways, and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between infection, metabolic dysregulation, and brain disorders, particularly focusing on the roles of insulin and leptin.

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Topics: Immune dysregulation (59%), Neuroinflammation (54%), Insulin resistance (52%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13071242
26 Jun 2021-Viruses
Abstract: The persistence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy suggests that modern HIV neuropathogenesis is driven, at least in part, by mechanisms distinct from the viral life cycle. Identifying more subtle mechanisms is complicated by frequent comorbidities in HIV+ populations. One of the common confounds is substance abuse, with cannabis being the most frequently used psychoactive substance among people living with HIV. The psychoactive effects of cannabis use can themselves mimic, and perhaps magnify, the cognitive deficits observed in HAND; however, the neuromodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids may counter HIV-induced excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Here, we review our understanding of the cross talk between HIV and cannabinoids in the central nervous system by exploring both clinical observations and evidence from preclinical in vivo and in vitro models. Additionally, we comment on recent advances in human, multi-cell in vitro systems that allow for more translatable, mechanistic studies of the relationship between cannabinoid pharmacology and this uniquely human virus.

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Topics: Effects of cannabis (57%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12640-021-00425-Y
Lee A. Campbell1, Italo Mocchetti1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles are heterogeneous cell-derived membranous structures of nanometer size that carry diverse cargoes including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. Their secretion into the extracellular space and delivery of their cargo to recipient cells can alter cellular function and intracellular communication. In this review, we summarize the role of extracellular vesicles in the disease pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) by focusing on their role in viral entry, neuroinflammation, and neuronal degeneration. We also discuss the potential role of extracellular vesicles as biomarkers of HAND. Together, this review aims to convey the importance of extracellular vesicles in the pathogenesis of HAND and foster interest in their role in neuroinflammatory diseases.

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Topics: Extracellular (55%), Microvesicles (52%)

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93 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CNE.21974
Abstract: The human brain is often considered to be the most cognitively capable among mammalian brains and to be much larger than expected for a mammal of our body size. Although the number of neurons is generally assumed to be a determinant of computational power, and despite the widespread quotes that the human brain contains 100 billion neurons and ten times more glial cells, the absolute number of neurons and glial cells in the human brain remains unknown. Here we determine these numbers by using the isotropic fractionator and compare them with the expected values for a human-sized primate. We find that the adult male human brain contains on average 86.1 +/- 8.1 billion NeuN-positive cells ("neurons") and 84.6 +/- 9.8 billion NeuN-negative ("nonneuronal") cells. With only 19% of all neurons located in the cerebral cortex, greater cortical size (representing 82% of total brain mass) in humans compared with other primates does not reflect an increased relative number of cortical neurons. The ratios between glial cells and neurons in the human brain structures are similar to those found in other primates, and their numbers of cells match those expected for a primate of human proportions. These findings challenge the common view that humans stand out from other primates in their brain composition and indicate that, with regard to numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells, the human brain is an isometrically scaled-up primate brain.

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Topics: Human brain (59%), Brain size (54%), Brain Mass (53%) ... show more

1,585 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.3277272
05 Feb 1988-Science
Abstract: Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is frequently complicated in its late stages by the AIDS dementia complex, a neurological syndrome characterized by abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. This dementia is due partially or wholly to a direct effect of the virus on the brain rather than to opportunistic infection, but its pathogenesis is not well understood. Productive HIV-1 brain infection is detected only in a subset of patients and is confined largely or exclusively to macrophages, microglia, and derivative multinucleated cells that are formed by virus-induced cell fusion. Absence of cytolytic infection of neurons, oligodentrocytes, and astrocytes has focused attention on the possible role of indirect mechanisms of brain dysfunction related to either virus or cell-coded toxins. Delayed development of the AIDS dementia complex, despite both early exposure of the nervous system to HIV-1 and chronic leptomeningeal infection, indicates that although this virus is "neurotropic," it is relatively nonpathogenic for the brain in the absence of immunosuppression. Within the context of the permissive effect of immunosuppression, genetic changes in HIV-1 may underlie the neuropathological heterogeneity of the AIDS dementia complex and its relatively independent course in relation to the systemic manifestations of AIDS noted in some patients.

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Topics: Dementia (55%), Opportunistic infection (53%)

1,230 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.83.18.7089
Abstract: Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) is a prominent feature of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many of these patients have a subacute encephalitis consistent with a viral infection of the CNS. We studied the brains of 12 AIDS patients using in situ hybridization to identify human immunodeficiency virus [HIV, referred to by others as human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV), AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV)] nucleic acid sequences and immunocytochemistry to identify viral and cellular proteins. Nine patients had significant HIV infection in the CNS. In all examined brains, the white matter was more severely involved than the grey matter. In most cases the infection was restricted to capillary endothelial cells, mononuclear inflammatory cells, and giant cells. In a single case with severe CNS involvement, a low-level infection was seen in some astrocytes and neurons. These results suggest that CNS dysfunction is due to indirect effects rather than neuronal or glial infection.

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Topics: Cellular localization (56%), HIV Antigens (55%), Virus (54%) ... show more

1,210 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/JVI.67.4.2182-2190.1993
Abstract: Tissue culture infections of CD4-positive human T cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proceed in three stages: (i) a period following the initiation of an infection during which no detectable virus is produced; (ii) a phase in which a sharp increase followed by a peak of released progeny virions can be measured; and (iii) a final period when virus production declines. In this study, we have derived equations describing the kinetics of HIV-1 accumulation in cell culture supernatants during multiple rounds of infection. Our analyses indicated that the critical parameter affecting the kinetics of HIV-1 infection is the infection rate constant k = Inn/ti, where n is the number of infectious virions produced by one cell (about 10(2)) and ti is the time required for one complete cycle of virus infection (typically 3 to 4 days). Of particular note was our finding that the infectivity of HIV-1 during cell-to-cell transmission is 10(2) to 10(3) times greater than the infectivity of cell-free virus stocks, the inocula commonly used to initiate tissue culture infections. We also demonstrated that the slow infection kinetics of an HIV-1 tat mutant is not due to a longer replication time but reflects the small number of infectious particles produced per cycle.

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Topics: Infectivity (56%), Virus (55%), Cell aggregation (52%) ... show more

506 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0952-7915(97)80110-0
Abstract: HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. The primary cellular receptor for HIV is CD4, but this molecule is insufficient to permit viral fusion. During 1996, the necessary entry co-factors (co-receptors or second receptors) were identified as being members of the seven-transmembrane-spanning receptor family fusin: CXCR4 for T-tropic strains and CCR5, principally, for M-tropic strains. The co-receptor functions of these proteins are inhibited by their natural α- and β-chemokine ligands.

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Topics: Receptor (55%), Coreceptor activity (52%)

506 Citations