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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2217/FON-2020-1290

Atezolizumab and bevacizumab for hepatocellular carcinoma: mechanism, pharmacokinetics and future treatment strategies.

05 Mar 2021-Future Oncology (Future Medicine Ltd)-Vol. 17, Iss: 17, pp 2243-2256
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer globally and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Although early-stage disease may be curable by resection, liver transplantation or ablation, many patients present with unresectable disease and have a poor prognosis. Combination treatment with atezolizumab (targeting PD-L1) and bevacizumab (targeting VEGF) in the recent IMbrave150 study was shown to be effective with an acceptable safety profile in patients with unresectable HCC. Herein, we discuss this novel combination in the context of the liver immune environment, summarize the mechanism and pharmacokinetics of atezolizumab and bevacizumab, and examine recent data on other immune checkpoint inhibitor combination strategies as well as future directions in the treatment of patients with advanced HCC.

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Topics: Atezolizumab (66%), Bevacizumab (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13112786
Hideki Iwamoto1, Shigeo Shimose1, Yu Noda1, Tomotake Shirono1  +13 moreInstitutions (1)
03 Jun 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Background: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was approved for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although clinical trials have revealed its efficacy, the outcomes in the real-world clinical practice are unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab for HCC. Materials and Methods: This is a multicenter study conducted between November 2020 and March 2021. Among the 61 patients, 51 were assessed for progression-free survival (PFS), therapeutic response, and adverse events (AEs). Results: The median PFS was 5.4 months. The objective response rate (ORR) was 35.3%. The disease control rate (DCR) was 86.3%. The incidence rates of AEs at any grade and grade >3 were 98.0% and 29.4%, respectively. The most frequent AE at any grade and grade >3 was hepatic disorder. In patients with a previous history of molecular targeted agent (MTA) or the degree of albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, there were no significant differences in the PFS, ORR, DCR, and incidence rates of AEs. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was effective and safe for patients with HCC even in the real-world setting including patients with a previous MTA history or other than ALBI grade 1.

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Topics: Atezolizumab (60%), Bevacizumab (50%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13163958
Yuwa Ando1, Tomokazu Kawaoka1, Masanari Kosaka1, Yuki Shirane1  +19 moreInstitutions (1)
05 Aug 2021-Cancers
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the early tumor response and safety of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in real-world practice. Forty patients with Child-Pugh class A liver function and eastern cooperative oncology group performance status 0 or 1 were enrolled. The objective response rate (ORR) at six weeks after the start of treatment, changes in α-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin, incidence of adverse events (AEs), and changes in albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score and serum ammonia level, were evaluated. Among 40 patients, 24 had histories of prior molecular targeted agents (MTAs). The ORR was 22.5% based on mRECIST. Multivariate analysis showed that an AFP ratio <1.0 at three weeks (odds ratio 39.2, 95% confidence interval CI 2.37-649.0, p = 0.0103) was the only significant factor for predicting early response. There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between patients receiving first-line treatments and others. Fatigue, proteinuria, and ascites were more frequent in patients who experienced prior treatment. No decrease in ALBI score or increase in serum ammonia level was observed. Our study demonstrated that AFP may be useful in assessing early response and that this treatment is safe, including in patients with prior MTA treatments.

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Topics: Atezolizumab (53%), Liver function (53%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13123026
Hyuk Moon1, Simon Weonsang Ro1Institutions (1)
17 Jun 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health concern worldwide, and its incidence is increasing steadily. Recently, the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in HCC has gained renewed attention from basic and clinical researchers. The MAPK/ERK signaling pathway is activated in more than 50% of human HCC cases; however, activating mutations in RAS and RAF genes are rarely found in HCC, which are major genetic events leading to the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in other cancers. This suggests that there is an alternative mechanism behind the activation of the signaling pathway in HCC. Here, we will review recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting the signaling pathway in the context of HCC.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/23247096211058489
Yukinobu Watanabe1, Masahiro Ogawa1, Yu Tamura1, Seiichiro Suda1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumor in the liver showed a complete response after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, but lung, bone, and lymph node metastases were observed, so treatment with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was initiated. After administration, the scans showed tumor growth, but after continuous administration of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, the tumors finally reduced in size and showed a partial response. The transient growth of the tumors was considered to be pseudoprogression. Herein, we report a case of pseudoprogression in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab.

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Topics: Atezolizumab (64%), Pseudoprogression (62%), Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (54%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.INTIMP.2021.108322
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and fatal malignancies with an alarming trend all around the world. Common therapeutic approaches in the early stage of disease are surgical resection, ablation, and liver transplantation. Due to the insidious identity of HCC, the majority of the patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, where tumor spreading, or distant metastasis unfortunately have already occurred. Immunotherapeutic options have elicited a promising approach in some malignancies with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approving the first checkpoint inhibitor anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) ipilimumab for the treatment of melanoma ten years ago. In the past decade, many clinical trials have been investigating anti-CTLA-4 as well as anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapies in various solid tumors, including HCC. In this mini-review we will discuss the latest clinical data from clinical trials for immune-checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of HCC.

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Topics: Ipilimumab (53%)
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84 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21492
Abstract: This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions There will be an estimated 181 million new cancer cases (170 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 96 million cancer deaths (95 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018 In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (116% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (184% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (116%), prostate cancer (71%), and colorectal cancer (61%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (92%), stomach cancer (82%), and liver cancer (82%) for mortality Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality) Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31 © 2018 American Cancer Society

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Topics: Cancer registry (78%), Cancer (72%), Breast cancer (63%) ... read more

39,828 Citations


Abstract: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Immune responses to foreign and self-antigens require specific and balanced responses to clear pathogens and tumors and yet maintain tolerance. Induction and maintenance of T cell tolerance requires PD-1, and its ligand PD-L1 on nonhematopoietic cells can limit effector T cell responses and protect tissues from immune-mediated tissue damage. The PD-1:PD-L pathway also has been usurped by microorganisms and tumors to attenuate antimicrobial or tumor immunity and facilitate chronic infection and tumor survival. The identification of B7-1 as an additional binding partner for PD-L1, together with the discovery of an inhibitory bidirectional interaction between PD-L1 and B7-1, reveals new ways the B7:CD28 family regulates T cell activation and tolerance. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their therapeutic potential.

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Topics: T cell (58%), B7-H1 Antigen (54%), Immune system (54%) ... read more

3,808 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31046-2
24 Jun 2017-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background For patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, sorafenib is the only approved drug worldwide, and outcomes remain poor. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of nivolumab, a programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without chronic viral hepatitis. Methods We did a phase 1/2, open-label, non-comparative, dose escalation and expansion trial (CheckMate 040) of nivolumab in adults (≥18 years) with histologically confirmed advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without hepatitis C or B (HCV or HBV) infection. Previous sorafenib treatment was allowed. A dose-escalation phase was conducted at seven hospitals or academic centres in four countries or territories (USA, Spain, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and a dose-expansion phase was conducted at an additional 39 sites in 11 countries (Canada, UK, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan). At screening, eligible patients had Child-Pugh scores of 7 or less (Child-Pugh A or B7) for the dose-escalation phase and 6 or less (Child-Pugh A) for the dose-expansion phase, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less. Patients with HBV infection had to be receiving effective antiviral therapy (viral load Findings Between Nov 26, 2012, and Aug 8, 2016, 262 eligible patients were treated (48 patients in the dose-escalation phase and 214 in the dose-expansion phase). 202 (77%) of 262 patients have completed treatment and follow-up is ongoing. During dose escalation, nivolumab showed a manageable safety profile, including acceptable tolerability. In this phase, 46 (96%) of 48 patients discontinued treatment, 42 (88%) due to disease progression. Incidence of treatment-related adverse events did not seem to be associated with dose and no maximum tolerated dose was reached. 12 (25%) of 48 patients had grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events. Three (6%) patients had treatment-related serious adverse events (pemphigoid, adrenal insufficiency, liver disorder). 30 (63%) of 48 patients in the dose-escalation phase died (not determined to be related to nivolumab therapy). Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was chosen for dose expansion. The objective response rate was 20% (95% CI 15–26) in patients treated with nivolumab 3 mg/kg in the dose-expansion phase and 15% (95% CI 6–28) in the dose-escalation phase. Interpretation Nivolumab had a manageable safety profile and no new signals were observed in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Durable objective responses show the potential of nivolumab for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Funding Bristol-Myers Squibb.

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Topics: Nivolumab (59%), Sorafenib (54%), Tolerability (52%) ... read more

2,008 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.2004.11.022
Abstract: Purpose To investigate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods In a phase II trial, 99 patients were randomly assigned to bevacizumab 7.5 (n = 32) or 15 mg/kg (n = 35) plus carboplatin (area under the curve = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) every 3 weeks or carboplatin and paclitaxel alone (n = 32). Primary efficacy end points were time to disease progression and best confirmed response rate. On disease progression, patients in the control arm had the option to receive single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Results Compared with the control arm, treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) resulted in a higher response rate (31.5% v 18.8%), longer median time to progression (7.4 v 4.2 months) and a modest increase in survival (17.7 v 14.9 months). Of the 19 control patients that crossed over to single-agent bevacizumab, five experienced stable disease, and...

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Topics: Carboplatin (59%), Bevacizumab (54%), Motesanib (51%)

1,839 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.2003.10.066
Abstract: Purpose: This phase II trial investigated the safety and efficacy of two doses of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, plus fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) versus FU/LV alone in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients and Methods: One hundred four previously untreated patients with measurable metastatic colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: 36 to FU (500 mg/m2)/LV (500 mg/m2) alone, 35 to FU/LV + low-dose bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks), and 33 to FU/LV + high-dose bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks). FU/LV was given weekly for the first 6 weeks of each 8-week cycle. Results: Compared with the FU/LV control arm, treatment with bevacizumab (at both dose levels) plus FU/LV resulted in higher response rates (control arm, 17%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 7% to 34%; low-dose arm, 40%, 95% CI, 24% to 58%; high-dose arm, 24%, 95% CI, 12% to 43%), longer median time to disease progression (control arm, 5....

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Topics: Bevacizumab (52%)

1,651 Citations


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