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Journal ArticleDOI

Authentication of berries and berry-based food products

TL;DR: An overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products is provided in this paper.
Abstract: Berries represent one of the most important and high-valued group of modern-day health-beneficial "superfoods" whose dietary consumption has been recognized to be beneficial for human health for a long time. In addition to being delicious, berries are rich in nutrients, vitamins, and several bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and hydrolysable tannins. However, due to their high value, berries and berry-based products are often subject to fraudulent adulteration, commonly for economical gain, but also unintentionally due to misidentification of species. Deliberate adulteration often comprises the substitution of high-value berries with lower value counterparts and mislabeling of product contents. As adulteration is deceptive toward customers and presents a risk for public health, food authentication through different methods is applied as a countermeasure. Although many authentication methods have been developed in terms of fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost analysis and have been applied in the authentication of a myriad of food products and species, their application on berries and berry-based products is still limited. The present review provides an overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products. We provide an overview of the earlier use and recent advances of these methods, as well as discuss the advances and drawbacks related to their application.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Goji berries have long been used for their nutritional value and medicinal purposes in Asian countries as mentioned in this paper and are consumed as a functional food due to wide-range bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties.
Abstract: Goji berries have long been used for their nutritional value and medicinal purposes in Asian countries. In the last two decades, goji berries have become popular around the world and are consumed as a functional food due to wide-range bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. In addition, they are gaining increased research attention as a source of functional ingredients with potential industrial applications. This review focuses on the antioxidant properties of goji berries, scientific evidence on their health effects based on human interventional studies, safety concerns, goji berry processing technologies, and applications of goji berry-based ingredients in developing functional food products.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a review summarizes the state-of-the-art of smart packaging films based on anthocyanin extracts from berries, namely, their preparation, characterization, and validation in real systems.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of current United States regulations, testing approaches, and trends for label compliance verification to ensure the safety of botanical products marketed for "immune health" can be found in this article .
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the botanical product market saw a consumer interest increase in immune health supplements. While data are currently insufficient to support public health guidance for using foods and dietary supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 and other immune disorders, consumer surveys indicate that immune support is the second-most cited reason for supplement use in the United States. Meanwhile, consumers showed increased attention to dietary supplement ingredient labels, especially concerning authenticity and ingredient claims. Top-selling botanical ingredients such as elderberry, turmeric, and functional mushrooms have been increasingly marketed toward consumers to promote immune health, but these popular products succumb to adulteration with inaccurate labeling due to the intentional or unintentional addition of lower grade ingredients, non-target plants, and synthetic compounds, partially due to pandemic-related supply chain issues. This review highlights the regulatory requirements and recommendations for analytical approaches, including chromatography, spectroscopy, and DNA approaches for ingredient claim verification. Demonstrating elderberry, turmeric, and functional mushrooms as examples, this review aims to provide industrial professionals and scientists an overview of current United States regulations, testing approaches, and trends for label compliance verification to ensure the safety of botanical products marketed for "immune health."

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a new methodology for the selective extraction of antioxidants from mate tea leaves (and decaffeinated mate tea leaf), using different natural deep eutectic systems (NADES), is reported.
Abstract: A new methodology for the selective extraction of antioxidants from mate tea leaves (and decaffeinated mate tea leaves), using different natural deep eutectic systems (NADES), is reported in this paper. A fractionated extraction was carried out and the optimization of the extraction conditions such as solid/liquid ratio, temperature, time, stirring and the use of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) technology was performed. The results demonstrate that a sequential extraction using, in a first step, an hydrophobic system Men:Lau (2:1) and, in a second step, an hydrophilic lactic acid-based NADES, leads to two distinct extracts: the first one rich in pigments and the second one rich in polyphenols. NADES systems were able to extract 30% more of the polyphenolic components of the mate tea leaves matrices, when compared with traditional solvents/techniques. Moreover, it has been shown that the incorporation of the extract in the NADES, compared to the same extract in aqueous medium was beneficial for the stabilization of the antioxidants. It maintains their functionality at least for three months, reaching 41% more versus the extracts obtained by traditional solvents/techniques. The absence of caffeine in the extracts did not shown to have any effects on the stability results.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the phenolic profiles of 45 berry seeds from nine genuine Serbian cultivated fruit species (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, black currant, blueberry, gooseberry, cape gooseberries, chokeberry, and goji berry) revealed a good differentiation according to botanical origin.

6 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
26 May 2011-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The process of selecting and refining a plant barcode is reviewed; the factors which influence the discriminatory power of the approach are evaluated; some early applications of plant barcoding are described and summarise major emerging projects; and outline tool development that will be necessary for plant DNA barcode to advance.
Abstract: The main aim of DNA barcoding is to establish a shared community resource of DNA sequences that can be used for organismal identification and taxonomic clarification. This approach was successfully pioneered in animals using a portion of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) mitochondrial gene. In plants, establishing a standardized DNA barcoding system has been more challenging. In this paper, we review the process of selecting and refining a plant barcode; evaluate the factors which influence the discriminatory power of the approach; describe some early applications of plant barcoding and summarise major emerging projects; and outline tool development that will be necessary for plant DNA barcoding to advance.

993 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Though ACY may indicate TPH, the range observed in ACY/TPH ratios precludes prediction of ACY from TPH and vice versa for a single genotype, and in general, TPH was more highly correlated to antioxidant capacity than ACY was.
Abstract: Fruits from 107 genotypes of Vaccinium L., Rubus L., and Ribes L., were analyzed for total anthocyanins (ACY), total phenolics (TPH), and antioxidant capacities as determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Fruit size was highly correlated (r = 0.84) with ACY within Vaccinium corymbosum L., but was not correlated to ACY across eight other Vaccinium species, or within 27 blackberry hybrids. Certain Vaccinium and Ribes fruits with pigmented flesh were lower in ACY, TPH, ORAC, and FRAP compared to those values in berries with nonpigmented flesh. ORAC values ranged from 19 to 131 μmol Trolox equivalents/g in Vaccinium, from 13 to 146 in Rubus, and from 17 to 116 in Ribes. Though ACY may indicate TPH, the range observed in ACY/TPH ratios precludes prediction of ACY from TPH and vice versa for a single genotype. In general, TPH was more highly correlated to antioxidant capacity than ACY was. This study demonstrates the wide diversity of phytochemical lev...

953 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health.

609 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.
Abstract: Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC) They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits

599 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Most of the herbal products tested were of poor quality, including considerable product substitution, contamination and use of fillers, which suggests that the herbal industry should embrace DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal products through testing of raw materials used in manufacturing products.
Abstract: Background: Herbal products available to consumers in the marketplace may be contaminated or substituted with alternative plant species and fillers that are not listed on the labels According to the World Health Organization, the adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety Our research aimed to investigate herbal product integrity and authenticity with the goal of protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination Methods: We used DNA barcoding to conduct a blind test of the authenticity for (i) 44 herbal products representing 12 companies and 30 different species of herbs, and (ii) 50 leaf samples collected from 42 herbal species Our laboratory also assembled the first standard reference material (SRM) herbal barcode library from 100 herbal species of known provenance that were used to identify the unknown herbal products and leaf samples Results: We recovered DNA barcodes from most herbal products (91%) and all leaf samples (100%), with 95% species resolution using a tiered approach (rbcL + ITS2) Most (59%) of the products tested contained DNA barcodes from plant species not listed on the labels Although we were able to authenticate almost half (48%) of the products, one-third of these also contained contaminants and or fillers not listed on the label Product substitution occurred in 30/44 of the products tested and only 2/12 companies had products without any substitution, contamination or fillers Some of the contaminants we found pose serious health risks to consumers Conclusions: Most of the herbal products tested were of poor quality, including considerable product substitution, contamination and use of fillers These activities dilute the effectiveness of otherwise useful remedies, lowering the perceived value of all related products because of a lack of consumer confidence in them We suggest that the herbal industry should embrace DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal products through testing of raw materials used in manufacturing products The use of an SRM DNA herbal barcode library for testing bulk materials could provide a method for ‘best practices’ in the manufacturing of herbal products This would provide consumers with safe, high quality herbal products Background Globalization of trade is expanding natural product commodity markets that sustain life and promote good health, yet the challenging financial climate is squeezing profit margins and exacerbating the propensity for contamination, fraudulent market substitution and the use of unlabeled fillers This comes at a time when consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about the authenticity of the products they purchase North America is a major provider of goods such as herbal products, a commodity that has come under scrutiny recently in the media due to product substitution [1-3] The International Trade in herbal products is a major force in the global economy and the demand is increasing in both developing and developed nations There are currently more than 1,000 companies producing medicinal plant products with annual revenues in excess of US$60 billion Notably, medicinal herbs now constitute the most rapidly growing segment of the North American alternative medicine market [4,5], with over 29,000 herbal substances [6,7] generating billions of dollars in trade These statistics are indicative of the rapid growth

427 citations