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Journal ArticleDOI

Automatic reconstruction of as-built building information models from laser-scanned point clouds: A review of related techniques

01 Nov 2010-Automation in Construction (Elsevier)-Vol. 19, Iss: 7, pp 829-843

TL;DR: This article surveys techniques developed in civil engineering and computer science that can be utilized to automate the process of creating as-built BIMs and outlines the main methods used by these algorithms for representing knowledge about shape, identity, and relationships.

AbstractBuilding information models (BIMs) are maturing as a new paradigm for storing and exchanging knowledge about a facility. BIMs constructed from a CAD model do not generally capture details of a facility as it was actually built. Laser scanners can be used to capture dense 3D measurements of a facility's as-built condition and the resulting point cloud can be manually processed to create an as-built BIM — a time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone process that could benefit significantly from automation. This article surveys techniques developed in civil engineering and computer science that can be utilized to automate the process of creating as-built BIMs. We sub-divide the overall process into three core operations: geometric modeling, object recognition, and object relationship modeling. We survey the state-of-the-art methods for each operation and discuss their potential application to automated as-built BIM creation. We also outline the main methods used by these algorithms for representing knowledge about shape, identity, and relationships. In addition, we formalize the possible variations of the overall as-built BIM creation problem and outline performance evaluation measures for comparing as-built BIM creation algorithms and tracking progress of the field. Finally, we identify and discuss technology gaps that need to be addressed in future research.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show scarce BIM implementation in existing buildings yet, due to challenges of (1) high modeling/conversion effort from captured building data into semantic BIM objects, (2) updating of information in BIM and (3) handling of uncertain data, objects and relations in B IM occurring inexisting buildings.
Abstract: While BIM processes are established for new buildings, the majority of existing buildings is not maintained, refurbished or deconstructed with BIM yet. Promising benefits of efficient resource management motivate research to overcome uncertainties of building condition and deficient documentation prevalent in existing buildings. Due to rapid developments in BIM research, involved stakeholders demand a state-of-the-art overview of BIM implementation and research in existing buildings. This paper presents a review of over 180 recent publications on the topic. Results show scarce BIM implementation in existing buildings yet, due to challenges of (1) high modeling/conversion effort from captured building data into semantic BIM objects, (2) updating of information in BIM and (3) handling of uncertain data, objects and relations in BIM occurring in existing buildings. Despite fast developments and spreading standards, challenging research opportunities arise from process automation and BIM adaption to existing buildings' requirements.

1,204 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional mapping data and its execution for the generation of 3D point clouds from digital mobile images is presented.
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems as a data acquisition platform and as a measurement instrument are becoming attractive for many surveying applications in civil engineering. Their performance, however, is not well understood for these particular tasks. The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data. Details to the components of the UAV system (hardware and control software) are explained. A novel program for photogrammetric flight planning and its execution for the generation of 3D point clouds from digital mobile images is explained. A performance model for estimating the position error was developed and tested in several realistic construction environments. Test results are presented as they relate to large excavation and earth moving construction sites. The experiences with the developed UAV system are useful to researchers or practitioners in need for successfully adapting UAV technology for their application(s).

543 citations


Cites result from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...Several recent and promising studies, including [37–41], show that 3D point clouds acquired by laser scanners, video or photo cameras positioned on the ground can be successfully converted to object models....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method to automatically convert the raw 3D point data from a laser scanner positioned at multiple locations throughout a facility into a compact, semantically rich information model that is capable of identifying and modeling the main visible structural components of an indoor environment despite the presence of significant clutter and occlusion.
Abstract: In the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) domain, semantically rich 3D information models are increasingly used throughout a facility's life cycle for diverse applications, such as planning renovations, space usage planning, and managing building maintenance. These models, which are known as building information models (BIMs), are often constructed using dense, three dimensional (3D) point measurements obtained from laser scanners. Laser scanners can rapidly capture the “as-is” conditions of a facility, which may differ significantly from the design drawings. Currently, the conversion from laser scan data to BIM is primarily a manual operation, and it is labor-intensive and can be error-prone. This paper presents a method to automatically convert the raw 3D point data from a laser scanner positioned at multiple locations throughout a facility into a compact, semantically rich information model. Our algorithm is capable of identifying and modeling the main visible structural components of an indoor environment (walls, floors, ceilings, windows, and doorways) despite the presence of significant clutter and occlusion, which occur frequently in natural indoor environments. Our method begins by extracting planar patches from a voxelized version of the input point cloud. The algorithm learns the unique features of different types of surfaces and the contextual relationships between them and uses this knowledge to automatically label patches as walls, ceilings, or floors. Then, we perform a detailed analysis of the recognized surfaces to locate openings, such as windows and doorways. This process uses visibility reasoning to fuse measurements from different scan locations and to identify occluded regions and holes in the surface. Next, we use a learning algorithm to intelligently estimate the shape of window and doorway openings even when partially occluded. Finally, occluded surface regions are filled in using a 3D inpainting algorithm. We evaluated the method on a large, highly cluttered data set of a building with forty separate rooms.

492 citations


Cites methods from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...process, typically using data from laser scanners as input (Figure 1) [1]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Robert Eadie1, Mike Browne1, Henry Odeyinka1, Clare McKeown1, Sean McNiff 
TL;DR: This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact and is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages.
Abstract: Substantial impacts through BIM implementation may be achieved throughout all stages of the construction process. The paper measures BIM use throughout the project lifecycle, confirming BIM is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages. This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact. The process aspects are more important than the software technology. BIM necessitates investment in software and training however, smaller practices can afford it. Stakeholder financial benefits are ranked concluding that clients benefit most financially from BIM followed by Facilities Managers. Despite this, over 70% do not provide a 3D model and Cobie dataset at the conclusion of a project. Identification of Key Performance Indicators currently being used for BIM is provided and findings indicate a lack of industry expertise and training providing an opportunity for education providers.

486 citations


Cites background from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...[56] demonstrate how a Multi-Disciplinary BIM Model (MDM) can be used for as-built purposes....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel system is described herein that combines 3D object recognition technology with schedule information into a combined 4D object oriented progress tracking system that demonstrates a degree of accuracy for automated progress tracking that meets or exceeds typical manual performance.
Abstract: Efficient and effective construction progress tracking is critical to construction management. Current manual tracking methods are time consuming and/or error prone. Three dimensional (3D) laser scanners are being investigated in the construction industry and have shown potential for supporting progress tracking. However, their full potential has not yet been achieved. The reason may be that commercial software packages are still too complicated for processing scanned data. Methods have however been developed for the automated recognition of project 3D CAD model objects in site laser scans. A novel system is thus described herein that combines 3D object recognition technology with schedule information into a combined 4D object oriented progress tracking system. This system is tested on a comprehensive field database acquired during the construction of the Engineering V Building at the University of Waterloo. It demonstrates a degree of accuracy for automated progress tracking that meets or exceeds typical manual performance.

272 citations


Cites methods from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...[13] investigated techniques developed in civil engineering and computer science to automate the process of creating as-built BIMs....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New results are derived on the minimum number of landmarks needed to obtain a solution, and algorithms are presented for computing these minimum-landmark solutions in closed form that provide the basis for an automatic system that can solve the Location Determination Problem under difficult viewing.
Abstract: A new paradigm, Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC), for fitting a model to experimental data is introduced. RANSAC is capable of interpreting/smoothing data containing a significant percentage of gross errors, and is thus ideally suited for applications in automated image analysis where interpretation is based on the data provided by error-prone feature detectors. A major portion of this paper describes the application of RANSAC to the Location Determination Problem (LDP): Given an image depicting a set of landmarks with known locations, determine that point in space from which the image was obtained. In response to a RANSAC requirement, new results are derived on the minimum number of landmarks needed to obtain a solution, and algorithms are presented for computing these minimum-landmark solutions in closed form. These results provide the basis for an automatic system that can solve the LDP under difficult viewing

20,503 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper has designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can easily be extended to include new algorithms.
Abstract: Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of dense, two-frame stereo methods designed to assess the different components and design decisions made in individual stereo algorithms. Using this taxonomy, we compare existing stereo methods and present experiments evaluating the performance of many different variants. In order to establish a common software platform and a collection of data sets for easy evaluation, we have designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can be easily extended to include new algorithms. We have also produced several new multiframe stereo data sets with ground truth, and are making both the code and data sets available on the Web.

7,020 citations


"Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In other fields, such as computer vision, standard test sets and performance metrics have been established [72,83], but no standard evaluation metrics have been established for as-built BIM creation as yet....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recognition-by-components (RBC) provides a principled account of the heretofore undecided relation between the classic principles of perceptual organization and pattern recognition.
Abstract: The perceptual recognition of objects is conceptualized to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components, such as blocks, cylinders, wedges, and cones. The fundamental assumption of the proposed theory, recognition-by-components (RBC), is that a modest set of generalized-cone components, called geons (N £ 36), can be derived from contrasts of five readily detectable properties of edges in a two-dimensiona l image: curvature, collinearity, symmetry, parallelism, and cotermination. The detection of these properties is generally invariant over viewing position an$ image quality and consequently allows robust object perception when the image is projected from a novel viewpoint or is degraded. RBC thus provides a principled account of the heretofore undecided relation between the classic principles of perceptual organization and pattern recognition: The constraints toward regularization (Pragnanz) characterize not the complete object but the object's components. Representational power derives from an allowance of free combinations of the geons. A Principle of Componential Recovery can account for the major phenomena of object recognition: If an arrangement of two or three geons can be recovered from the input, objects can be quickly recognized even when they are occluded, novel, rotated in depth, or extensively degraded. The results from experiments on the perception of briefly presented pictures by human observers provide empirical support for the theory. Any single object can project an infinity of image configurations to the retina. The orientation of the object to the viewer can vary continuously, each giving rise to a different two-dimensional projection. The object can be occluded by other objects or texture fields, as when viewed behind foliage. The object need not be presented as a full-colored textured image but instead can be a simplified line drawing. Moreover, the object can even be missing some of its parts or be a novel exemplar of its particular category. But it is only with rare exceptions that an image fails to be rapidly and readily classified, either as an instance of a familiar object category or as an instance that cannot be so classified (itself a form of classification).

5,316 citations


"Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Various researchers have proposed candidate sets of primitives, such as geons [9], superquadrics [3], and generalized cylinders [10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems.
Abstract: Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program has addressed both issues through the FERET database of facial images and the establishment of the FERET tests. To date, 14,126 images from 1,199 individuals are included in the FERET database, which is divided into development and sequestered portions of the database. In September 1996, the FERET program administered the third in a series of FERET face-recognition tests. The primary objectives of the third test were to 1) assess the state of the art, 2) identify future areas of research, and 3) measure algorithm performance.

4,690 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1992
TL;DR: A general method for automatic reconstruction of accurate, concise, piecewise smooth surfaces from unorganized 3D points that is able to automatically infer the topological type of the surface, its geometry, and the presence and location of features such as boundaries, creases, and corners.
Abstract: This thesis describes a general method for automatic reconstruction of accurate, concise, piecewise smooth surfaces from unorganized 3D points. Instances of surface reconstruction arise in numerous scientific and engineering applications, including reverse-engineering--the automatic generation of CAD models from physical objects. Previous surface reconstruction methods have typically required additional knowledge, such as structure in the data, known surface genus, or orientation information. In contrast, the method outlined in this thesis requires only the 3D coordinates of the data points. From the data, the method is able to automatically infer the topological type of the surface, its geometry, and the presence and location of features such as boundaries, creases, and corners. The reconstruction method has three major phases: (1) initial surface estimation, (2) mesh optimization, and (3) piecewise smooth surface optimization. A key ingredient in phase 3, and another principal contribution of this thesis, is the introduction of a new class of piecewise smooth representations based on subdivision. The effectiveness of the three-phase reconstruction method is demonstrated on a number of examples using both simulated and real data. Phases 2 and 3 of the surface reconstruction method can also be used to approximate existing surface models. By casting surface approximation as a global optimization problem with an energy function that directly measures deviation of the approximation from the original surface, models are obtained that exhibit excellent accuracy to conciseness trade-offs. Examples of piecewise linear and piecewise smooth approximations are generated for various surfaces, including meshes, NURBS surfaces, CSG models, and implicit surfaces.

2,963 citations