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Journal ArticleDOI

Automatic reconstruction of as-built building information models from laser-scanned point clouds: A review of related techniques

TL;DR: This article surveys techniques developed in civil engineering and computer science that can be utilized to automate the process of creating as-built BIMs and outlines the main methods used by these algorithms for representing knowledge about shape, identity, and relationships.
About: This article is published in Automation in Construction.The article was published on 2010-11-01. It has received 789 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Information model & Computer Aided Design.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show scarce BIM implementation in existing buildings yet, due to challenges of (1) high modeling/conversion effort from captured building data into semantic BIM objects, (2) updating of information in BIM and (3) handling of uncertain data, objects and relations in B IM occurring inexisting buildings.

1,499 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional mapping data and its execution for the generation of 3D point clouds from digital mobile images is presented.

661 citations


Cites result from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...Several recent and promising studies, including [37–41], show that 3D point clouds acquired by laser scanners, video or photo cameras positioned on the ground can be successfully converted to object models....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reviews the recent status of methodologies and techniques related to the construction of digital twins mostly from a modeling perspective to provide a detailed coverage of the current challenges and enabling technologies along with recommendations and reflections for various stakeholders.
Abstract: Digital twin can be defined as a virtual representation of a physical asset enabled through data and simulators for real-time prediction, optimization, monitoring, controlling, and improved decision making. Recent advances in computational pipelines, multiphysics solvers, artificial intelligence, big data cybernetics, data processing and management tools bring the promise of digital twins and their impact on society closer to reality. Digital twinning is now an important and emerging trend in many applications. Also referred to as a computational megamodel, device shadow, mirrored system, avatar or a synchronized virtual prototype, there can be no doubt that a digital twin plays a transformative role not only in how we design and operate cyber-physical intelligent systems, but also in how we advance the modularity of multi-disciplinary systems to tackle fundamental barriers not addressed by the current, evolutionary modeling practices. In this work, we review the recent status of methodologies and techniques related to the construction of digital twins mostly from a modeling perspective. Our aim is to provide a detailed coverage of the current challenges and enabling technologies along with recommendations and reflections for various stakeholders.

660 citations


Cites background from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...As discussed in [74], BIMs constructed from aCADmodel do not often capture details of a facility as it was actually built....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Robert Eadie1, Mike Browne1, Henry Odeyinka1, Clare McKeown1, Sean McNiff 
TL;DR: This research demonstrates via 92 responses from a sample of BIM users that collaboration aspects produce the highest positive impact and is most often used in the early stages with progressively less use in the latter stages.

586 citations


Cites background from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...[56] demonstrate how a Multi-Disciplinary BIM Model (MDM) can be used for as-built purposes....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method to automatically convert the raw 3D point data from a laser scanner positioned at multiple locations throughout a facility into a compact, semantically rich information model that is capable of identifying and modeling the main visible structural components of an indoor environment despite the presence of significant clutter and occlusion.

576 citations


Cites methods from "Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..."

  • ...process, typically using data from laser scanners as input (Figure 1) [1]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New results are derived on the minimum number of landmarks needed to obtain a solution, and algorithms are presented for computing these minimum-landmark solutions in closed form that provide the basis for an automatic system that can solve the Location Determination Problem under difficult viewing.
Abstract: A new paradigm, Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC), for fitting a model to experimental data is introduced. RANSAC is capable of interpreting/smoothing data containing a significant percentage of gross errors, and is thus ideally suited for applications in automated image analysis where interpretation is based on the data provided by error-prone feature detectors. A major portion of this paper describes the application of RANSAC to the Location Determination Problem (LDP): Given an image depicting a set of landmarks with known locations, determine that point in space from which the image was obtained. In response to a RANSAC requirement, new results are derived on the minimum number of landmarks needed to obtain a solution, and algorithms are presented for computing these minimum-landmark solutions in closed form. These results provide the basis for an automatic system that can solve the LDP under difficult viewing

23,396 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper has designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can easily be extended to include new algorithms.
Abstract: Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of dense, two-frame stereo methods designed to assess the different components and design decisions made in individual stereo algorithms. Using this taxonomy, we compare existing stereo methods and present experiments evaluating the performance of many different variants. In order to establish a common software platform and a collection of data sets for easy evaluation, we have designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can be easily extended to include new algorithms. We have also produced several new multiframe stereo data sets with ground truth, and are making both the code and data sets available on the Web.

7,458 citations


"Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In other fields, such as computer vision, standard test sets and performance metrics have been established [72,83], but no standard evaluation metrics have been established for as-built BIM creation as yet....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recognition-by-components (RBC) provides a principled account of the heretofore undecided relation between the classic principles of perceptual organization and pattern recognition.
Abstract: The perceptual recognition of objects is conceptualized to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components, such as blocks, cylinders, wedges, and cones. The fundamental assumption of the proposed theory, recognition-by-components (RBC), is that a modest set of generalized-cone components, called geons (N £ 36), can be derived from contrasts of five readily detectable properties of edges in a two-dimensiona l image: curvature, collinearity, symmetry, parallelism, and cotermination. The detection of these properties is generally invariant over viewing position an$ image quality and consequently allows robust object perception when the image is projected from a novel viewpoint or is degraded. RBC thus provides a principled account of the heretofore undecided relation between the classic principles of perceptual organization and pattern recognition: The constraints toward regularization (Pragnanz) characterize not the complete object but the object's components. Representational power derives from an allowance of free combinations of the geons. A Principle of Componential Recovery can account for the major phenomena of object recognition: If an arrangement of two or three geons can be recovered from the input, objects can be quickly recognized even when they are occluded, novel, rotated in depth, or extensively degraded. The results from experiments on the perception of briefly presented pictures by human observers provide empirical support for the theory. Any single object can project an infinity of image configurations to the retina. The orientation of the object to the viewer can vary continuously, each giving rise to a different two-dimensional projection. The object can be occluded by other objects or texture fields, as when viewed behind foliage. The object need not be presented as a full-colored textured image but instead can be a simplified line drawing. Moreover, the object can even be missing some of its parts or be a novel exemplar of its particular category. But it is only with rare exceptions that an image fails to be rapidly and readily classified, either as an instance of a familiar object category or as an instance that cannot be so classified (itself a form of classification).

5,464 citations


"Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Various researchers have proposed candidate sets of primitives, such as geons [9], superquadrics [3], and generalized cylinders [10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems.
Abstract: Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program has addressed both issues through the FERET database of facial images and the establishment of the FERET tests. To date, 14,126 images from 1,199 individuals are included in the FERET database, which is divided into development and sequestered portions of the database. In September 1996, the FERET program administered the third in a series of FERET face-recognition tests. The primary objectives of the third test were to 1) assess the state of the art, 2) identify future areas of research, and 3) measure algorithm performance.

4,816 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1996
TL;DR: This paper presents a volumetric method for integrating range images that is able to integrate a large number of range images yielding seamless, high-detail models of up to 2.6 million triangles.
Abstract: A number of techniques have been developed for reconstructing surfaces by integrating groups of aligned range images. A desirable set of properties for such algorithms includes: incremental updating, representation of directional uncertainty, the ability to fill gaps in the reconstruction, and robustness in the presence of outliers. Prior algorithms possess subsets of these properties. In this paper, we present a volumetric method for integrating range images that possesses all of these properties. Our volumetric representation consists of a cumulative weighted signed distance function. Working with one range image at a time, we first scan-convert it to a distance function, then combine this with the data already acquired using a simple additive scheme. To achieve space efficiency, we employ a run-length encoding of the volume. To achieve time efficiency, we resample the range image to align with the voxel grid and traverse the range and voxel scanlines synchronously. We generate the final manifold by extracting an isosurface from the volumetric grid. We show that under certain assumptions, this isosurface is optimal in the least squares sense. To fill gaps in the model, we tessellate over the boundaries between regions seen to be empty and regions never observed. Using this method, we are able to integrate a large number of range images (as many as 70) yielding seamless, high-detail models of up to 2.6 million triangles.

3,282 citations


"Automatic reconstruction of as-buil..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Non-parametric geometricmodeling reconstructs a surface, typically in the formof a triangle mesh [41], or a volume [18]....

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