scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17352/JNNSD.000041

Avoidant personality disorder: Definition, clinical and neurobiological profiles, differential diagnosis and therapeutic framework

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 7, Iss: 1, pp 001-005
Abstract: Rod and Frame Testing (RFT) has been used to investigate the effects of an altered visual frame of reference on subjective visual vertical. RFT requires an individual to align a luminous rod as best they can with true vertical.

... read more

Citations
  More

8 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: • avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection • is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked • shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed • is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations • is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy • views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others • is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing

... read more

26 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17352/2455-2283.000094
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: The human intestinal microbiota is considered “an organ within an organ”, partially shrouded in mystery, as the issue related to the bacterial component but less the viral component and the other microorganisms present has been thoroughly investigated. To date, research has focused attention on the bacterial component and on the correlations between intestinal dysbiosis and the onset or worsening of dozens of physical and psychological pathological conditions, as well as integrative therapies to re-establish eubiosis, linked to targeted prebiotics and probiotics; however, the scientific community has not yet focused on the exact distribution of all the microorganisms that are part of the microbiota and the complete mapping of the microbiome, as well as the development of a protocol of specific therapies to be implemented (integrative or with monoclonal antibodies) to facilitate the reconstructive processes of natural eubiosis. If therefore, knowing the Microbiome (and the Microbiota) is important from a neuroimmunological point of view, on the other hand, it is essential to deepen the correlations with the onset of some physical and psychological pathologies; in particular, focusing the studies on the already well-known “microbiota-intestine-brain” axis would help to demonstrate whether the onset of psychopathological conditions are a contributing cause of dysbiosis or (more likely) dysbiosis causes an altered production of serotonin, dopamine, GABA and noradrenaline, capable of generating or worsening directly related psychopathologies, such as anxiety, depression, mood disorders, schizophrenia, psychotic and personality disorders. On the other hand, it is known that psychiatric drug therapies do not cure the morbid condition but aim to stabilize the patient who becomes dependent on it, and then witness a rapid worsening in the event of drug suspension or interruption. If we then wanted to search for an objective to investigate, the writer proposes to focus on the hypothesis according to which intervening on intestinal dysbiosis could decrease or eliminate the neurobiochemical cause at the base of many psychic disorders, such as anxiety, depression, bipolar and psychotic disorders, decreasing or eliminating the necessarily prescribed drug therapy.

... read more

Topics: Dysbiosis (62%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17352/IJSRHC.000025
24 Jul 2021-
Abstract: As at the end of August 2020, the coronavirus disease outbreak has hit more than 50,000 across all the 36 states of Nigeria. Whilst the federal government declared contraception an essential service that can continue to be assessed from health facilities,

... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17352/2455-2283.000100
26 Jul 2021-
Abstract: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a disease of the respiratory system and is manifested by an infectious pneumonia, with fever, cough and breathlessness as the most common presenting symptoms.

... read more

Topics: Dysbiosis (61%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17352/OJPCH.000035
05 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is the most important risk factor for the burden of diseases. There was lack of information regarding the prevalence, level and factors associated with malnutrition among children of under-five years of age from Baluchistan, Pakistan.

... read more


References
  More

24 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHPSYC.56.7.600
Abstract: Background: Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate whether childhood abuse and neglect increases risk for personality disorders (PDs) during early adulthood. Methods: Psychosocial and psychiatric interviews were administered to a representative community sample of 639 youths and their mothers from 2 counties in the state of New York in 1975, 1983, 1985 to 1986, and 1991 to 1993. Evidence of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect was obtained from New York State records and from offspring self-reports in 1991 to 1993 when they were young adults. Offspring PDs were assessed in 1991 to 1993. Results: Persons with documented childhood abuse or neglect were more than 4 times as likely as those who were not abused or neglected to be diagnosed with PDs during early adulthood after age, parental education, and parental psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. Childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were each associated with elevated PD symptom levels during early adulthood after other types of childhood maltreatment were controlled statistically. Of the 12 categories of DSM-IV PD symptoms, 10 were associated with childhood abuse or neglect. Different types of childhood maltreatment were associated with symptoms of specific PDs during early adulthood. Conclusions: Persons in the community who have experienced childhood abuse or neglect are considerably more likely than those who were not abused or neglected to have PDs and elevated PD symptom levels during early adulthood. Childhood abuse and neglect may contribute to the onset of some PDs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:600-606

... read more

Topics: Child abuse (65%), Neglect (61%), Child neglect (60%) ... show more

769 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0885066611403260
Abstract: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the most common reason for hospitalization in Western nations. The prognosis of patients admitted to hospital with ADHF is poor, with up to 64% being readmitted within the first 90 days after discharge and with a 1-year mortality approximating 20%. Epidemiological studies suggest that the majority of patients hospitalized with ADHF receive treatment that is inadequate and which is not based on scientific evidence. Furthermore, emerging data suggest that the "conventional" therapeutic interventions for ADHF including morphine, high-dose diuretics, and inotropic agents may be harmful. The goal of this review is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ADHF.

... read more

624 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1521/PEDI.18.2.193.32777
Abstract: Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are frequently implicated in the development of personality disorders (PDs); however, research on the childhood histories of most PD groups remains limited. In this multisite investigation, we assessed self-reported history of abuse and neglect experiences among 600 patients diagnosed with either a PD (borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive) or major depressive disorder without PD. Results indicate that rates of childhood maltreatment among individuals with PDs are generally high (73% reporting abuse; 82% reporting neglect). As expected, borderline PD was more consistently associated with childhood abuse and neglect than other PD diagnoses. However, even when controlling for the effect of borderline PD, other PD diagnoses were associated with specific types of maltreatment.

... read more

Topics: Child abuse (61%), Personality disorders (59%), Child neglect (58%) ... show more

361 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1521/PEDI.2000.14.2.171
Abstract: Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the association between childhood neglect and personality disorder (PD) symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychosocial and psychiatric interviews were administered to a representative sample of 738 youths and their mothers from upstate New York in 1975, 1983, 1985-1986, and 1991-1993. Evidence of childhood cognitive, emotional, physical, and supervision neglect was obtained from the maternal interviews that were conducted in 1975, 1983, and 1985-1986, and from New York State records. PDs were assessed among the youths in 1985-1986, when they were adolescents, and in 1991-1993, when they were young adults. Findings indicated that childhood emotional, physical, and supervision neglect were associated with increased risk for PDs and with elevated PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood, after age, sex, childhood physical or sexual abuse, other types of childhood neglect, and cooccurring PD symptoms were controlled statistically. Childhood emotional neglect was associated with increased risk for avoidant PD and with paranoid and Cluster A PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood physical neglect was associated with increased risk for schizotypal PD and with Cluster A PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. Childhood supervision neglect was associated with increased risk for passive-aggressive and Cluster B PDs and with borderline, paranoid, and passive-aggressive PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood. The present findings suggest that childhood emotional, physical, and supervision neglect may play a role in the etiology of some PDs.

... read more

Topics: Neglect (58%), Child abuse (56%), Sexual abuse (52%) ... show more

231 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/J.1440-1614.2003.01263.X
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate childhood experiences (neglect and abuse), temperament and childhood and adolescent psychopathology as risk factors for avoidant and borderline personality disorders in depressed outpatients.Method: One hundred and eighty depressed outpatients were evaluated for personality disorders. Risk factors of childhood abuse, parental care, temperament, conduct disorder symptoms, childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders, depressive episodes, hypomania and alcohol and drug dependence were obtained by questionnaires and interviews.Results: Avoidant personality disorder can be conceptualized as arising from a combination of high harm avoidance (shy, anxious), childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders and parental neglect. Borderline personality disorder can be formulated as arising from a combination of childhood abuse and/or neglect, a borderline temperament (high novelty seeking and high harm avoidance), and childhood and adolescent depression, hypomania, conduct disorder and alcohol and d...

... read more

106 Citations