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Journal ArticleDOI

Backscatter of electromagnetic waves from a rough layer

01 May 1966-Vol. 54, Iss: 9, pp 1191-1193

Abstract: Backscatter of electromagnetic waves from rough layer simulated by acoustic backscattering from partially submerged Plexiglas layer
Topics: Backscatter (55%)

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

BACKSCATTER OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES
FROM
A ROUGH
LAYER
by
VIJAY RAJ KUMAR
B.
S.,
Banaras
Hindu
University, 1961
A
MASTER'S
THESIS
submitted
in partial
fulfillment
of the
requirements
for the
degree
MASTER
OF SCIENCE
Department
of
Electrical
Engineering
Kansas
State
University
Manhattan,
Kansas
1966
Approved by:
Major
Professor

T^
^
^
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
C-X .
The author
wishes
to
thank
Dr. S. H.
Durrani for
his
help
and guidance
during the preparation of
this thesis.
Thanks
are
also
due
to Dr. W.
W. Koepsel
and Mr.
D. E. Kaufman for
many
useful suggestions.
The assistance of
Mr.
Gary
Alexander
and
Mr.
John Cheng in
the experimental
work and of
Mrs. Linda Toy
and Mrs. Mary Lu Hill in typing
the report is
acknowledged.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1.
INTRODUCTION *
.
i
1
2. THE GENERAL
KIRCHHOFF
SOLUTION FOR
SCATTERING
OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES FROM ROUGH
SURFACES .... 7
2.0. General
Formulation of
the Problem
7
2.1.
Surface
Rough in One
Dimension
12
2.2. Surface
Rough in
Two Dimensions
18
3.
BACKSCATTER OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES FROM A
ROUGH LAYER
23
3.0. E
Fields in Various Regions
23
3.1. Radar Cross
Section of Rough Layer
32
Case I: Short
Pulse
34
Case
II: Long Pulse
39
3.2
Summary of Results
41
3.3*
Discussion of Results
43
3.4. Notation
47
4. RADAR
CROSS
SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR A ROUGH LAYER
BY
ACOUSTIC SIMULATION TECHNIQUES 50
4.0. Basic Concepts 50
4.1. Acoustic Simulator Components 52
4.2.
Target
Description 55
4.3
Procedure for the Experiment
58
4.4
Results
60
4.5.
Discussion
of Results
66
5.
CONCLUSIONS
70
6.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE
STUDIES
73
APPENDIX
I
-
TARGET
CONSTRUCTION, PROPERTIES
&
STATISTICS
75
APPENDIX
II
-
COMMENTS
ON
SIGNAL RECORDING;
SAMPLE
CALCULATIONS
82

ii
Page
APPENDIX III
-
TABLES
OF
MEASURED DATA
86
APPENDIX
IV
-
SCATTERING
FROM
PERIODICALLY
ROUGH
SURFACES
88
BIBLIOGRAPHY
90

1X1
LIST
OF
FIGURES
Figure
No.
Pa
9
e
1.
The
scattering
geometry
8
2.
Derivation
of
equation
(7)
8
3.
The "local"
scattering
geometry
11
4.
The
"scattering
geometry"
for
rough
layer
24
5.
Further
details
of
rough
layer
scatter
28
6.
The Acoustic
Simulator
51
7.
Plexiglas
layer
56
8.
Normalized
autocorrelation
function
for
full
length of
rough
surface
of
layer
57
9.
Normalized
autocorrelation
function
for
four-fifths
length of
rough
surface
of
layer
61
10.
Radar
cross
section
versus a
/A for
rough
back
configuration
of
layer
62
11.
Radar
cross
section
versus
angle
of
incidence
for
rough
back
configuration
of
layer
63
12. Radar
cross
section
versus
a
/A for
rough
front
configuration
of
layer
64
13. Radar
cross
section
versus
angle of
incidence
for
rough
front
configuration
of
layer
65
14. On
backscatter
calculations
83

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