Abstract: This study aims to provide a bibliometric analysis of business failure research, recognise the main existing research topics and establish future research challenges. The results, based on a sample of 588 articles, show that the number of published papers and citations has grown steadily, especially in the last 14 years. The most productive and relevant journals, countries, institutions and authors are presented using bibliometric performance indicators. In addition, through the graphical mapping of strategic diagrams, this study identifies the most significant research trends and proposes several directions for future research. The results of this research may be helpful for beginner researchers and experts in business failure, as they contribute to bringing clarity to this line of investigation. These results reveal all the aspects involved in business failure research, analysing its temporal and methodological characterisation, and the most prolific authors who have participated in its study (see, i.e., H. Li), leading journals (see, i.e., Expert Systems with Applications) or academic institutions that have headed the scientific analysis of this business phenomenon. Likewise, it has been possible to identify three main areas in which the research on business failure has been focused: business, management and accounting; economics, econometrics and finance; and social sciences. In addition, a complete, synthesised and organised summary of the various definitions, perspectives and research trends are presented.