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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJME2034982

Baricitinib Therapy in Covid-19 Pneumonia - An Unmet Need Fulfilled.

04 Mar 2021-The New England Journal of Medicine (Massachusetts Medical Society)-Vol. 384, Iss: 9, pp 867-869
Abstract: The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is characterized by an initial stage with mild symptoms of the upper respiratory tract. During this stage, the viral load of severe acute ...

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Topics: Pneumonia (54%), Viral load (50%)

16 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2101643
Abstract: Background The efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients who are hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia are unclear. Methods We ran...

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Topics: Tofacitinib (65%), Janus kinase inhibitor (60%), Pneumonia (55%)

60 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00331-3
Abstract: Summary Background Baricitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor with known anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in combination with standard of care for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19. Methods In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, participants were enrolled from 101 centres across 12 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Hospitalised adults with COVID-19 receiving standard of care were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily baricitinib (4 mg) or matched placebo for up to 14 days. Standard of care included systemic corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, and antivirals, including remdesivir. The composite primary endpoint was the proportion who progressed to high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death by day 28, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. All-cause mortality by day 28 was a key secondary endpoint, and all-cause mortality by day 60 was an exploratory endpoint; both were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the safety population defined as all randomly allocated participants who received at least one dose of study drug and who were not lost to follow-up before the first post-baseline visit. This study is registered with , NCT04421027 . Findings Between June 11, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 1525 participants were randomly assigned to the baricitinib group (n=764) or the placebo group (n=761). 1204 (79·3%) of 1518 participants with available data were receiving systemic corticosteroids at baseline, of whom 1099 (91·3%) were on dexamethasone; 287 (18·9%) participants were receiving remdesivir. Overall, 27·8% of participants receiving baricitinib and 30·5% receiving placebo progressed to meet the primary endpoint (odds ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·67 to 1·08], p=0·18), with an absolute risk difference of −2·7 percentage points (95% CI −7·3 to 1·9). The 28-day all-cause mortality was 8% (n=62) for baricitinib and 13% (n=100) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [95% CI 0·41–0·78]; nominal p=0·0018), a 38·2% relative reduction in mortality; one additional death was prevented per 20 baricitinib-treated participants. The 60-day all-cause mortality was 10% (n=79) for baricitinib and 15% (n=116) for placebo (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·47–0·83]; p=0·0050). The frequencies of serious adverse events (110 [15%] of 750 in the baricitinib group vs 135 [18%] of 752 in the placebo group), serious infections (64 [9%] vs 74 [10%]), and venous thromboembolic events (20 [3%] vs 19 [3%]) were similar between the two groups. Interpretation Although there was no significant reduction in the frequency of disease progression overall, treatment with baricitinib in addition to standard of care (including dexamethasone) had a similar safety profile to that of standard of care alone, and was associated with reduced mortality in hospitalised adults with COVID-19. Funding Eli Lilly and Company. Translations For the French, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

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Topics: Population (52%)

29 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH14080738
Milo Gatti1, Eleonora Turrini1, Emanuel Raschi1, Piero Sestili2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
28 Jul 2021-Pharmaceuticals
Abstract: We are witnessing a paradigm shift in drug development and clinical practice to fight the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and a number of clinical trials have been or are being testing various pharmacological approaches to counteract viral load and its complications such as cytokine storm. However, data on the effectiveness of antiviral and immune therapies are still inconclusive and inconsistent. As compared to other candidate drugs to treat COVID-19, Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors, including baricitinib and ruxolitinib, possess key pharmacological features for a potentially successful repurposing: convenient oral administration, favorable pharmacokinetic profile, multifunctional pharmacodynamics by exerting dual anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. Baricitinib, originally approved for rheumatoid arthritis, received Emergency Use Authorization in November 2020 by the Food and Drug Administration in combination with remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients ≥ 2 years old who require supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. By July 2021, the European Medicines Agency is also expected to issue the opinion on whether or not to extend its use in hospitalised patients from 10 years of age who require supplemental oxygen. Ruxolitinib, approved for myelofibrosis, was prescribed in patients with COVID-19 within an open-label Emergency Expanded Access Plan. This review will address key milestones in the discovery and use of JAK inhibitors in COVID-19, from artificial intelligence to current clinical evidence, including real world experience, and critically appraise emerging safety issues, namely infections, thrombosis, and liver injury. An outlook to ongoing studies ( and unpublished pharmacovigilance data is also offered.

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Topics: Ruxolitinib (54%), Pharmacovigilance (53%), Expanded access (53%) ... show more

6 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COVIRO.2021.08.004
Ivan Zanoni1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Type I and type III interferons are among the most potent anti-viral cytokines produced by the immune system. The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, underscores the vital role of these cytokines in controlling the virus and dictating disease severity. Here we delineate the pathways that lead to interferon production in response to SARS-CoV-2 encounter, and elucidate how this virus hinders the production and action of these cytokines; we also highlight that these interferon families serve protective as well as detrimental roles in patients with COVID-19, and conclude that a better understanding of the time, dose, localization, and activity of specific members of the interferon families is imperative for designing more efficient therapeutic interventions against this disease.

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Topics: Interferon (51%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12967-021-02938-8
Abstract: Recent studies proposed the whole-blood based IFN-γ-release assay to study the antigen-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Since the early prediction of disease progression could help to assess the optimal treatment strategies, an integrated knowledge of T-cell and antibody response lays the foundation to develop biomarkers monitoring the COVID-19. Whole-blood-platform tests based on the immune response detection to SARS-CoV2 peptides is a new approach to discriminate COVID-19-patients from uninfected-individuals and to evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccine candidates, monitoring the immune response in vaccine trial and supporting the serological diagnostics results. Here, we aimed to identify in the whole-blood-platform the best immunogenic viral antigen and the best immune biomarker to identify COVID-19-patients. Whole-blood was overnight-stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools of nucleoprotein-(NP) Membrane-, ORF3a- and Spike-protein. We evaluated: IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL- 15, IL-17A, eotaxin, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF, RANTES, TNF-α, VEGF. By a sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis we identified the most important soluble factors discriminating COVID-19- from NO-COVID-19-individuals. We identified a COVID-19 signature based on six immune factors: IFN-γ, IP-10 and IL-2 induced by Spike; RANTES and IP-10 induced by NP and IL-2 induced by ORF3a. We demonstrated that the test based on IP-10 induced by Spike had the highest AUC (0.85, p < 0.0001) and that the clinical characteristics of the COVID-19-patients did not affect IP-10 production. Finally, we validated the use of IP-10 as biomarker for SARS-CoV2 infection in two additional COVID-19-patients cohorts. We set-up a whole-blood assay identifying the best antigen to induce a T-cell response and the best biomarkers for SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluating patients with acute COVID-19 and recovered patients. We focused on IP-10, already described as a potential biomarker for other infectious disease such as tuberculosis and HCV. An additional application of this test is the evaluation of immune response in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials: the IP-10 detection may define the immunogenicity of a Spike-based vaccine, whereas the immune response to the virus may be evaluated detecting other soluble factors induced by other viral-antigens.

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Topics: Immunogenicity (57%), Antigen (56%), Vaccine trial (52%) ... show more

4 Citations


10 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2021436
Abstract: BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Glucocorticoids may modulate inflammation-mediated lung injury and thereby reduce progression to respiratory failure and death.MethodsIn this controlled, open-label trial comparing a range of possible treatments in patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned patients to receive oral or intravenous dexamethasone (at a dose of 6 mg once daily) for up to 10 days or to receive usual care alone. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Here, we report the final results of this assessment.ResultsA total of 2104 patients were assigned to receive dexamethasone and 4321 to receive usual care. Overall, 482 patients (22.9%) in the dexamethasone group and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the usual care group died within 28 days after randomization (age-adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.93; P<0.001). The proportional and absolute between-group differences in mortality varied considerably according to the level of respiratory support that the patients were receiving at the time of randomization. In the dexamethasone group, the incidence of death was lower than that in the usual care group among patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (29.3% vs. 41.4%; rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81) and among those receiving oxygen without invasive mechanical ventilation (23.3% vs. 26.2%; rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94) but not among those who were receiving no respiratory support at randomization (17.8% vs. 14.0%; rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.55).ConclusionsIn patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone at randomization but not among those receiving no respiratory support. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY number, NCT04381936. opens in new tab; ISRCTN number, 50189673. opens in new tab.)

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Topics: Lung injury (55%), Mechanical ventilation (52%), Randomized controlled trial (52%) ... show more

4,501 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2007764
John H. Beigel1, Kay M. Tomashek1, Lori E. Dodd1, Aneesh K. Mehta1  +36 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), none have yet been shown to be efficacious. Methods We conducte...

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3,423 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMCP2009249
Abstract: Key Clinical Points Mild or Moderate Covid-19 Covid-19 (the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2) has a range of clinical manifestations, including cough, fever, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal symptom...

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Topics: Malaise (54%)

590 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2031994
Abstract: Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known. Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15. Results A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P = 0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, -5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.8 to -0.3; P = 0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, -5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -1.9; P = 0.003). Conclusions Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; number, NCT04401579.).

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Topics: Hazard ratio (50%)

504 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JINF.2020.04.017
Abstract: • Baricitinib at 4 mg/day/orally was given to 12 patients with moderate COVID-19. • In baricitinib-treated patients no adverse events were recorded, after 2 weeks. • Clinical and respiratory parameters significantly improved at 2 weeks. • None of the baricitinib-treated patients required admission to ICU. • Proper control group was missing; this is required to demonstrate the efficacy.

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271 Citations

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