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Open accessPosted Content

Barlow Twins: Self-Supervised Learning via Redundancy Reduction

Abstract: Self-supervised learning (SSL) is rapidly closing the gap with supervised methods on large computer vision benchmarks. A successful approach to SSL is to learn embeddings which are invariant to distortions of the input sample. However, a recurring issue with this approach is the existence of trivial constant solutions. Most current methods avoid such solutions by careful implementation details. We propose an objective function that naturally avoids collapse by measuring the cross-correlation matrix between the outputs of two identical networks fed with distorted versions of a sample, and making it as close to the identity matrix as possible. This causes the embedding vectors of distorted versions of a sample to be similar, while minimizing the redundancy between the components of these vectors. The method is called Barlow Twins, owing to neuroscientist H. Barlow's redundancy-reduction principle applied to a pair of identical networks. Barlow Twins does not require large batches nor asymmetry between the network twins such as a predictor network, gradient stopping, or a moving average on the weight updates. Intriguingly it benefits from very high-dimensional output vectors. Barlow Twins outperforms previous methods on ImageNet for semi-supervised classification in the low-data regime, and is on par with current state of the art for ImageNet classification with a linear classifier head, and for transfer tasks of classification and object detection.

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95 results found

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Recent self-supervised methods for image representation learning are based on maximizing the agreement between embedding vectors from different views of the same image. A trivial solution is obtained when the encoder outputs constant vectors. This collapse problem is often avoided through implicit biases in the learning architecture, that often lack a clear justification or interpretation. In this paper, we introduce VICReg (Variance-Invariance-Covariance Regularization), a method that explicitly avoids the collapse problem with a simple regularization term on the variance of the embeddings along each dimension individually. VICReg combines the variance term with a decorrelation mechanism based on redundancy reduction and covariance regularization, and achieves results on par with the state of the art on several downstream tasks. In addition, we show that incorporating our new variance term into other methods helps stabilize the training and leads to performance improvements.

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Topics: Covariance (53%), Regularization (mathematics) (53%), Variance (accounting) (52%) ... show more

22 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
19 Feb 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: State-of-the-art methods for self-supervised learning (SSL) build representations by maximizing the similarity between different transformed "views" of a sample. Without sufficient diversity in the transformations used to create views, however, it can be difficult to overcome nuisance variables in the data and build rich representations. This motivates the use of the dataset itself to find similar, yet distinct, samples to serve as views for one another. In this paper, we introduce Mine Your Own vieW (MYOW), a new approach for self-supervised learning that looks within the dataset to define diverse targets for prediction. The idea behind our approach is to actively mine views, finding samples that are neighbors in the representation space of the network, and then predict, from one sample's latent representation, the representation of a nearby sample. After showing the promise of MYOW on benchmarks used in computer vision, we highlight the power of this idea in a novel application in neuroscience where SSL has yet to be applied. When tested on multi-unit neural recordings, we find that MYOW outperforms other self-supervised approaches in all examples (in some cases by more than 10%), and often surpasses the supervised baseline. With MYOW, we show that it is possible to harness the diversity of the data to build rich views and leverage self-supervision in new domains where augmentations are limited or unknown.

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Topics: Sample (statistics) (51%), Nuisance variable (50%)

10 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
16 May 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Deep learning on graphs has recently achieved remarkable success on a variety of tasks, while such success relies heavily on the massive and carefully labeled data. However, precise annotations are generally very expensive and time-consuming. To address this problem, self-supervised learning (SSL) is emerging as a new paradigm for extracting informative knowledge through well-designed pretext tasks without relying on manual labels. In this survey, we extend the concept of SSL, which first emerged in the fields of computer vision and natural language processing, to present a timely and comprehensive review of existing SSL techniques for graph data. Specifically, we divide existing graph SSL methods into three categories: contrastive, generative, and predictive. More importantly, unlike other surveys that only provide a high-level description of published research, we present an additional mathematical summary of existing works in a unified framework. Furthermore, to facilitate methodological development and empirical comparisons, we also summarize the commonly used datasets, evaluation metrics, downstream tasks, open-source implementations, and experimental study of various algorithms. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges and potential future directions for improving graph self-supervised learning. Latest advances in graph SSL are summarized in a GitHub repository this https URL.

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Topics: Deep learning (51%)

8 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Self-supervised learning holds promise in leveraging large amounts of unlabeled data, however much of its progress has thus far been limited to highly curated pre-training data such as ImageNet. We explore the effects of contrastive learning from larger, less-curated image datasets such as YFCC, and find there is indeed a large difference in the resulting representation quality. We hypothesize that this curation gap is due to a shift in the distribution of image classes -- which is more diverse and heavy-tailed -- resulting in less relevant negative samples to learn from. We test this hypothesis with a new approach, Divide and Contrast (DnC), which alternates between contrastive learning and clustering-based hard negative mining. When pretrained on less curated datasets, DnC greatly improves the performance of self-supervised learning on downstream tasks, while remaining competitive with the current state-of-the-art on curated datasets.

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7 Citations

Open accessPosted Content
13 May 2021-
Abstract: In this paper, at first, the impact of ImageNet pre-training on Facial Expression Recognition (FER) was tested under different augmentation levels. It could be seen from the results that training from scratch could reach better performance compared to ImageNet fine-tuning at stronger augmentation levels. After that, a framework was proposed for standard Supervised Learning (SL), called Hybrid Learning (HL) which used Self-Supervised co-training with SL in Multi-Task Learning (MTL) manner. Leveraging Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) could gain additional information from input data like spatial information from faces which helped the main SL task. It is been investigated how this method could be used for FER problems with self-supervised pre-tasks such as Jigsaw puzzling and in-painting. The supervised head (SH) was helped by these two methods to lower the error rate under different augmentations and low data regime in the same training settings. The state-of-the-art was reached on AffectNet via two completely different HL methods, without utilizing additional datasets. Moreover, HL's effect was shown on two different facial-related problem, head poses estimation and gender recognition, which concluded to reduce in error rate by up to 9% and 1% respectively. Also, we saw that the HL methods prevented the model from reaching overfitting.

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Topics: Supervised learning (57%), Overfitting (52%)

6 Citations


48 results found

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.90
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... show more

93,356 Citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2009.5206848
Jia Deng1, Wei Dong1, Richard Socher1, Li-Jia Li1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
20 Jun 2009-
Abstract: The explosion of image data on the Internet has the potential to foster more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to index, retrieve, organize and interact with images and multimedia data. But exactly how such data can be harnessed and organized remains a critical problem. We introduce here a new database called “ImageNet”, a large-scale ontology of images built upon the backbone of the WordNet structure. ImageNet aims to populate the majority of the 80,000 synsets of WordNet with an average of 500-1000 clean and full resolution images. This will result in tens of millions of annotated images organized by the semantic hierarchy of WordNet. This paper offers a detailed analysis of ImageNet in its current state: 12 subtrees with 5247 synsets and 3.2 million images in total. We show that ImageNet is much larger in scale and diversity and much more accurate than the current image datasets. Constructing such a large-scale database is a challenging task. We describe the data collection scheme with Amazon Mechanical Turk. Lastly, we illustrate the usefulness of ImageNet through three simple applications in object recognition, image classification and automatic object clustering. We hope that the scale, accuracy, diversity and hierarchical structure of ImageNet can offer unparalleled opportunities to researchers in the computer vision community and beyond.

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Topics: WordNet (57%), Image retrieval (54%)

31,274 Citations

Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10602-1_48
Tsung-Yi Lin1, Michael Maire2, Serge Belongie1, James Hays  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
06 Sep 2014-
Abstract: We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in precise object localization. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.

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Topics: Object detection (54%)

18,843 Citations

Open accessProceedings Article
Shaoqing Ren1, Kaiming He1, Ross Girshick1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
07 Dec 2015-
Abstract: State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [7] and Fast R-CNN [5] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully-convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. RPNs are trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. With a simple alternating optimization, RPN and Fast R-CNN can be trained to share convolutional features. For the very deep VGG-16 model [19], our detection system has a frame rate of 5fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007 (73.2% mAP) and 2012 (70.4% mAP) using 300 proposals per image. Code is available at

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Topics: Object detection (61%)

13,622 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11263-009-0275-4
Mark Everingham1, Luc Van Gool2, Christopher Williams3, John Winn4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: The Pascal Visual Object Classes (VOC) challenge is a benchmark in visual object category recognition and detection, providing the vision and machine learning communities with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures. Organised annually from 2005 to present, the challenge and its associated dataset has become accepted as the benchmark for object detection. This paper describes the dataset and evaluation procedure. We review the state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection, analyse whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images (e.g. the object or its context), and what the methods find easy or confuse. The paper concludes with lessons learnt in the three year history of the challenge, and proposes directions for future improvement and extension.

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11,545 Citations

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