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Journal ArticleDOI

Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: An analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions

01 Sep 2012-Energy Policy (Elsevier)-Vol. 48, pp 717-729

AbstractElectric Vehicles (EVs) are promoted as a viable near-term vehicle technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with conventional vehicles (CVs). In spite of the benefits of EVs, several obstacles need to be overcome before EVs will be widely adopted. A major barrier is that consumers tend to resist new technologies that are considered alien or unproved, thus, policy decisions that consider their critical concerns will have a higher level of success. This research identifies potential socio-technical barriers to consumer adoption of EVs and determines if sustainability issues influence consumer decision to purchase an EV. This study provides valuable insights into preferences and perceptions of technology enthusiasts; individuals highly connected to technology development and better equipped to sort out the many differences between EVs and CVs. This group of individuals will likely be early adopters of EVs only if they perceive them to be superior in performance compared to CVs. These results can guide policymakers in crafting energy and transportation policy. It can also provide guidance to EV engineers' decision in incorporating consumer preference into EV engineering design.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance.
Abstract: Zinc-air batteries have attracted much attention and received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, which makes them a promising candidate for emerging mobile and electronic applications. Besides their high energy density, they also demonstrate other desirable characteristics, such as abundant raw materials, environmental friendliness, safety, and low cost. Here, the reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance. Additionally, a section dedicated to battery-testing techniques and corresponding recommendations for best practices are included. Finally, a general perspective on the current limitations, recent application-targeted developments, and recommended future research directions to prolong the lifespan of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is provided.

744 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates.

688 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In spite of the purported positive environmental consequences of electrifying the light duty vehicle fleet, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) in use is still insignificant. One reason for the modest adoption figures is that the mass acceptance of EVs to a large extent is reliant on consumers’ perception of EVs. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the drivers for and barriers against consumer adoption of plug-in EVs, as well as an overview of the theoretical perspectives that have been utilized for understanding consumer intentions and adoption behavior towards EVs. In addition, we identify gaps and limitations in existing research and suggest areas in which future research would be able to contribute.

573 citations


Cites background or methods from "Barriers to widespread adoption of ..."

  • ...…rational behavior and have measured consumer attitudes towards EVs using different dimensions to predict consumer purchase intentions for EVs (Carley et al., 2013; Egbue and Long, 2012; Jensen et al., 2013; Krupa et al., 2014; Lieven et al., 2011; Moons and De Pelsmacker, 2012; Zhang et al., 2011)....

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  • ...…attitude in the TPB is the evaluation of positive and negative consequences of the behavior, in applying the TPB in innovation adoption behavior, mostly, attitudes toward the innovation has been in focus (i.e. Pickett-Baker and Ozaki, 2008; Moons and De Pelsmacker (2012); Egbue and Long, 2012)....

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  • ...Although some consumers might be unaware or skeptical about the possible environmental benefits of EVs, adoption of EVs are shown to be motivated by consumer’s pro-environmental attitudes, values, and beliefs in some studies (i.e. Egbue and Long, 2012; Carley et al., 2013; Krupa et al., 2014)....

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  • ...Various studies on consumer adoption of EVs have assumed that EVs are eco-innovations which have the potential to reduce the environmental problems of the transportation sector (i.e. Egbue and Long, 2012; Lane and Potter, 2007; Schuitema et al., 2013)....

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  • ...Other than range, EVs’ performance, safety, size and style have been reported as barriers to adoption in the studies of potential buyers’ intentions to adopt EVs for some potential buyers (Egbue and Long, 2012)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2019
Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently the most suitable energy storage device for powering electric vehicles (EVs) owing to their attractive properties including high energy efficiency, lack of memory effect, long cycle life, high energy density and high power density. These advantages allow them to be smaller and lighter than other conventional rechargeable batteries such as lead–acid batteries, nickel–cadmium batteries (Ni–Cd) and nickel–metal hydride batteries (Ni–MH). Modern EVs, however, still suffer from performance barriers (range, charging rate, lifetime, etc.) and technological barriers (high cost, safety, reliability, etc.), limiting their widespread adoption. Given these facts, this review sets the extensive market penetration of LIB-powered EVs as an ultimate objective and then discusses recent advances and challenges of electric automobiles, mainly focusing on critical element resources, present and future EV markets, and the cost and performance of LIBs. Finally, novel battery chemistries and technologies including high-energy electrode materials and all-solid-state batteries are also evaluated for their potential capabilities in next-generation long-range EVs.

308 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability. © 1991 Academic Press. Inc.

55,422 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper reports results of two questionnaire studies aimed at examining various motives for car use. In the first study, a random selection of 185 respondents who possess a driving licence were interviewed. Respondents were recruited from the cities of Groningen and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The sample of the second study comprised a random selection of 113 commuters who regularly travelled during rush hours in and around Rotterdam, a region in the west of the Netherlands. First, it was examined which categories of car use motives may be distinguished. As proposed by Dittmar’s (1992) [The social psychology of material possessions: to have is to be. Havester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead, UK; St. Martin’s Press, New York] model on the meaning of material possessions, results from both studies revealed that car use not only fulfils instrumental functions, but also important symbolic and affective functions. Second, it was studied to what extent these different motives are related to the level of car use. From the results of study 2, it appeared that commuter car use was most strongly related to symbolic and affective motives, and not to instrumental motives. Third, individual differences in the relative importance of the three categories of motives were investigated. In both studies, most group differences were found in the evaluation of the symbolic and affective motives (and not the instrumental ones). Especially frequent drivers, respondents with a positive car attitude, male and younger respondents valued these non-instrumental motives for car use. These results suggest that policy makers should not exclusively focus on instrumental motives for car use, but they should consider the many social and affective motives as well.

949 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Federal, state and local governments use a variety of incentives to induce consumer adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles. We study the relative efficacy of state sales tax waivers, income tax credits and non-tax incentives and find that the type of tax incentive offered is as important as the value of the tax incentive. Conditional on value, we find that sales tax waivers are associated a seven-fold greater increase in hybrid sales than income tax credits. In addition, we estimate the extent to which consumer adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) in the United States from 2000-2006 can be attributed to government incentives, changing gasoline prices, or consumer preferences for environmental quality or energy security. After controlling for model specific state and time trends, we find that rising gasoline prices are associated with higher hybrid sales, although the effect operates entirely through sales of the hybrid models with the highest fuel economy. In total, we find that tax incentives, rising gasoline prices and social preferences are associated with 6, 27 and 36 percent of high economy hybrid sales from 2000-2006.

541 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such “technical” barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these “socio-technical” obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition—and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world.

497 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: One full year of high-resolution driving data from 484 instrumented gasoline vehicles in the US is used to analyze daily driving patterns, and from those infer the range requirements of electric vehicles (EVs). We conservatively assume that EV drivers would not change their current gasoline-fueled driving patterns and that they would charge only once daily, typically at home overnight. Next, the market is segmented into those drivers for whom a limited-range vehicle would meet every day’s range need, and those who could meet their daily range need only if they make adaptations on some days. Adaptations, for example, could mean they have to either recharge during the day, borrow a liquid-fueled vehicle, or save some errands for the subsequent day. From this analysis, with the stated assumptions, we infer the potential market share for limited-range vehicles. For example, we find that 9% of the vehicles in the sample never exceeded 100 miles in one day, and 21% never exceeded 150 miles in one day. These drivers presumably could substitute a limited-range vehicle, like electric vehicles now on the market, for their current gasoline vehicle without any adaptation in their driving at all. For drivers who are willing to make adaptations on 2 days a year, the same 100 mile range EV would meet the needs of 17% of drivers, and if they are willing to adapt every other month (six times a year), it would work for 32% of drivers. Thus, it appears that even modest electric vehicles with today’s limited battery range, if marketed correctly to segments with appropriate driving behavior, comprise a large enough market for substantial vehicle sales. An additional analysis examines driving versus parking by time of day. On the average weekday at 5 pm, only 15% of the vehicles in the sample are on the road; at no time during the year are fewer than 75% of vehicles parked. Also, because the return trip home is widely spread in time, even if all cars plug in and begin charging immediately when they arrive home and park, the increased demand on the electric system is less problematic than prior analyses have suggested.

485 citations