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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICECA49313.2020.9297649

Baseline procedure for conceptual designing of an eVTOL for Urban Air Mobility

05 Nov 2020-pp 1173-1178
Abstract: Urban Air Mobility (UAM) is a long-desired service which will revolutionize the present transportation facilities, by introducing air mobility for on-demand aviation. Due to the continuous increase in population, road traffic is increasing at alarming rates and the problem of congestion is also increasing in metro cities. These new services will provide improved ways for individuals to go around urban communities and urban territories while decreasing blockage. eVTOLs are aircraft that are capable of Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) with no requirement of run-up space and are tremendously getting popular when it comes to UAM due to the important factor of clean propulsion with zero-emission. The industry is rapidly proposing and adopting new vehicle concepts to meet consumer demands and hence conceptually designing these vehicles with basic guidelines will set a preliminary foundation for more innovative technologies to come. This research work sets a baseline procedure and an initial iteration example for the industries and upcoming companies in this sector hence focuses on the Conceptual designing of eVTOLs. The novelty of the presented work lies in enhanced eVTOL configuration using coaxial ducted tilt rotors with wings.

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References
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Open accessBook
01 Jan 1989-
Abstract: * Design - A Separate Discipline * Overview of the Design Process * Sizing from a Conceptual Sketch * Airfoil and Geometry Selection * Thrust-to-Weight Ratio and Wing Loading * Initial Sizing * Configuration Layout and Loft * Special Considerations in Configuration Layout * Crew Station, Passengers, and Payload * Propulsion and Fuel System Integration * Landing Gear and Subsystems * Intermission: Step-by-Step Development of a New Design * Aerodynamics * Propulsion * Structures and Loads * Weights * Stability, Control, and Handling Qualities * Performance and Flight Mechanics * Cost Analysis * Sizing and Trade Studies * Design of Unique Aircraft Concepts * Conceptual Design Examples * Appendix A: Unit Conversion * Appendix B: Standard Atmosphere.

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Topics: Conceptual design (58%), Payload (55%), Aircraft flight mechanics (55%) ...read more

2,285 Citations


Open accessBook
28 Nov 2012-
Abstract: Presenting in one volume the methodologies behind aircraft design, this book covers the components and the issues affected by design procedures. The basic topics that are essential to the process, such as aerodynamics, flight stability and control, aero-structure, and aircraft performance are reviewed in various chapters where required. Based on these fundamentals and design requirements, the author explains the design process in a holistic manner to emphasise the integration of the individual components into the overall design. Throughout the book the various design options are considered and weighed against each other, to give readers a practical understanding of the process overall.

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Topics: System of systems engineering (74%), Vehicle engineering (74%), Aviation engineering (68%) ...read more

201 Citations


Open access
Colin P. Coleman1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1997-
Abstract: The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.

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Topics: Coaxial rotors (73%), Tail rotor (64%), Coaxial (62%) ...read more

162 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AEROSPACE6030026
28 Feb 2019-
Abstract: In the last ten years, different concepts of electric vertical take-off and landing aircrafts (eVTOLs) have been tested. This article addresses the problem of the choice of the best configuration. VTOLs built since the fifties are presented and their advantages, disadvantages, and problems are discussed. Three representative eVTOLs, one for each main configuration, are compared on five main parameters and three reference missions. The parameters are disk loading, total hover time, cruise speed, practical range, and flight time. The performance of the eVTOLs on the urban, extra-urban, and long-range mission is evaluated computing the time and energy required. The results show that the best configuration depends on the mission. The multirotor is more efficient in hover. The vectored thrust jet is more efficient in cruise and has a higher range. The lift + cruise is a compromise.

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Topics: Multirotor (53%), Range (aeronautics) (51%), Disk loading (50%)

44 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4050/JAHS.55.012004
Hyo Won Kim1, Richard E. BrownInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The performance of a coaxial rotor in hover, in steady forward flight, and in level, coordinated turns is contrasted with that of an equivalent, conventional rotor with the same overall solidity, number of blades, and blade aerodynamic properties. Brown's vorticity transport model is used to calculate the profile, induced, and parasite contributions to the overall power consumed by the two systems, and the highly resolved representation of the rotor wake that is produced by the model is used to relate the observed differences in the performance of the two systems to the structures of their respective wakes. In all flight conditions, all else being equal, the coaxial system requires less induced power than the conventional system. In hover, the conventional rotor consumes increasingly more induced power than the coaxial rotor as thrust is increased. In forward flight, the relative advantage of the coaxial configuration is particularly evident at pretransitional advance ratios. In turning flight, the benefits of the coaxial rotor are seen at all load factors. The beneficial properties of the coaxial rotor in forward flight and maneuver, as far as induced power is concerned, are a subtle effect of rotor-wake interaction and result principally from differences between the two types of rotor in the character and strength of the localized interaction between the developing supervortices and the highly loaded blade-tips at the lateral extremities of the rotor. In hover, the increased axial convection rate of the tip vortices appears to result in a favorable redistribution of the loading slightly inboard of the tip of the upper rotor of the coaxial system.

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  • Fig. 6. Radial distribution of various parameters: upper and lower rotors of coaxial system compared (overall CT = 0.0050).
    Fig. 6. Radial distribution of various parameters: upper and lower rotors of coaxial system compared (overall CT = 0.0050).
  • Fig. 12. Wake geometry in steady, level flight (left: coaxial rotor; right: equivalent conventional rotor).
    Fig. 12. Wake geometry in steady, level flight (left: coaxial rotor; right: equivalent conventional rotor).
  • Fig. 13. Internal wake structure in steady, level flight (left: coaxial rotor; right: equivalent conventional rotor).
    Fig. 13. Internal wake structure in steady, level flight (left: coaxial rotor; right: equivalent conventional rotor).
  • Fig. 21. Control angles required in a level, wind-up turn.
    Fig. 21. Control angles required in a level, wind-up turn.
  • Fig. 20. Total power and its constituents in a level, wind-up turn (with high-frequency oscillations removed).
    Fig. 20. Total power and its constituents in a level, wind-up turn (with high-frequency oscillations removed).
  • + 19

Topics: Rotor (electric) (65%), Coaxial (64%), Wound rotor motor (62%) ...read more

24 Citations


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