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Basic Engineering Geological Properties of Lateritic Soils from Western Niger Delta

01 Jan 2011-
TL;DR: In this article, the mean value of the optimum moisture content of less than 12% suggests that during dry season, road construction work in the field may not be a major problem.
Abstract: This study was carried out with aim of providing a valuable data base for emerging road construction engineers involved in opening up the rural areas for extensive petroleum exploration activities. A total of 152 samples were randomly collected with different geotechnical parameters tested according to the British Standards. The soils are generally fine to medium grained consisting mainly of clayey sand and sandy clays with low to medium plasticity. The mean value of the optimum moisture content of less than 12% suggests that during dry season, construction work in the field may not be a major problem. The soaked CBR values range from 3 to 43%. This falls below the stipulated 180% by Federal Ministry of Works for base course material. Consequently, this suggests that these soils should be subjected to some forms of stabilization to ensure the durability of roads in this region.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the time-dependent changes in the structure of lime stabilized montmorillonitic and lateritic clays using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

119 citations


Cites background from "Basic Engineering Geological Proper..."

  • ...Lateritic soils are generally regarded as good foundation materials and are used in various civil engineering projects such as road and earth dam constructions (Gidigasu, 1976; Lemougna et al., 2011; Ugbe, 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present results of land cover change analyses, results of an assessment of coastline dynamics, as well as the manifestation of oil exploitation activity as expressed via oil access canal dredging and gas flaring, monitored within the 27 year time span investigated.

90 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors have reported significant concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in different geological formations and mineral resources, such as Pulmoddai and other beach placer deposits, Eppawala carbonatite, alluvial placer and pegmatites.

35 citations


Cites background from "Basic Engineering Geological Proper..."

  • ...Generally, they are enriched in hydrated iron and aluminum oxides (Ugbe, 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, compaction and strength characteristics test were investigated using three compactive efforts (i.e., British Standard light, BSL (standard Proctor), West African Standard, WAS or ‘intermediate) and British Standard heavy, BSH (modified Proctor).
Abstract: Laboratory studies on lateritic soil treated with up to 8% calcium chloride (CaCl2) by dry weight of soil was carried out to establish the soil improving potential. Tests carried out include Atterberg limits and linear shrinkage, compaction characteristics (maximum dry density, MDD and optimum moisture content, OMC), strength characteristics (unconfined compressive strength, UCS and California bearing ratio, CBR) and microanalysis. Compaction and strength characteristics test were investigated using three compactive efforts [i.e. British Standard light, BSL (standard Proctor), West African Standard, WAS or ‘intermediate’ and British Standard heavy, BSH (modified Proctor)]. Results obtained show that Atterberg limits decreased with increased calcium chloride content. MDD increased with a corresponding decreased OMC of the soil–CaCl2 mixtures for the three compactive efforts. Peak UCS and CBR values were obtained at 4% CaCl2 content with increasing compactive effort. Microanalysis using Scan Electron Microscope, SEM shows the transformation of surface morphology at the edges of clay particles. Statistical analysis of result shows that CaCl2 content had significant influence on the Atterberg limit parameters and both the variations of CaCl2 content and compactive effort had significant effect on the strength parameters, maximum dry density as well as the optimum moisture content. The R2 values of regression models show that CaCl2, LL, MDD, OMC and CE have considerable influence on the UCS at 7 days curing and CBR values. Peak strength values are below those recommended for sub base and base stabilization, hence CaCl2 is not convenient as a stand-alone stabilizer but can be adequate as a modifier or as admixture in Cement or lime stabilization of lateritic soil.

31 citations


Cites background from "Basic Engineering Geological Proper..."

  • ...In the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the geotechnical properties of laterite soil were conducted by Ugbe (2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the results of various tests conducted on these soils collected from the eastern part of the country and the correlations established between different parameters for easier determination of complex soil properties are presented.
Abstract: Due to the scarcity of crushed stone aggregates, the feasibility of using locally available granular materials and marginal aggregates as pavement material is being explored in most part of the world. Granular lateritic soil (locally known as Moorum) has been used as a sub-base material for road construction in India. The characteristics of lateritic soils vary considerably based on their mineralogical composition, microstructure of soil particles, climate, parent rock and degree of laterisation. Therefore a detailed characterization of granular lateritic soils available locally in India is very much essential for its use as pavement material. In recent years, there is a sway towards mechanistic design of pavements, which requires the mechanical properties of all the materials being used in the pavement layers. Material property in terms of elastic modulus or resilient modulus and Poisson’s ratio are two major input parameters for mechanistic design. Granular materials show stress hardening characteristics and behave non-linearly under repeated loads. Considering the requirement of characterization of granular lateritic soils in India, a comprehensive laboratory study was taken up. This paper presents the results of various tests conducted on these soils collected from the eastern part of the country and the correlations established between different parameters for easier determination of complex soil properties.

25 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new threefold lithostratigraphic subdivision for the Niger delta subsurface is introduced, comprising an upper sandy Benin Formation, an intervening unit of alternating sandstone and shale named the Agbada Formation, and a lower shaly Akata Formation.
Abstract: The coastal sedimentary basin of Nigeria has been the scene of three depositional cycles. The first began with a marine incursion in the middle Cretaceous and was terminated by a mild folding phase in Santonian time. The second included the growth of a proto-Niger delta during the Late Cretaceous and ended in a major Paleocene marine transgression. The third cycle, from Eocene to Recent, marked the continuous growth of the main Niger delta. A new threefold lithostratigraphic subdivision is introduced for the Niger delta subsurface, comprising an upper sandy Benin Formation, an intervening unit of alternating sandstone and shale named the Agbada Formation, and a lower shaly Akata Formation. These three units extend across the whole delta and each ranges in age from early T rtiary to Recent. They are related to the present outcrops and environments of deposition. A separate member of the Benin Formation is recognized in the Port Harcourt area. This is the Afam Clay Member, which is interpreted to be an ancient valley fill formed in Miocene sediments. Subsurface structures are described as resulting from movement under the influence of gravity and their distribution is related to growth stages of the delta. Rollover anticlines in front of growth faults form the main objectives of oil exploration, the hydrocarbons being found in sandstone reservoirs of the Agbada Formation.

1,036 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Late Quaternary Niger delta as mentioned in this paper is a large, arcuate "classical" delta associated with marginal estuary and barrier island-lagoon complexes, where sediment originating in a vast and geologically complex hinterland is dispersed through the delta by river, tidal, wave, and ocean currents.
Abstract: The Late Quaternary Niger delta in the Gulf of Guinea is a large, arcuate "classical" delta associated with marginal estuary and barrier island-lagoon complexes. The Late Quaternary deltaic lens (minimum volume 900 cubic kilometers) is the latest accretion within the Nigerian Coastal Plain geosyncline. Sediment originating in a vast and geologically complex hinterland is dispersed through the delta by river, tidal, wave, and ocean currents. Delta growth began during the Late Wisconsin lowstand of the sea when the rivers entrenched the continental shelf to reach mouths above submarine canyons at the shelf edge. The oldest stratigraphical unit of the Late Quaternary deltaic pile is a strand plain sand (Older Sands) representing a marine transgression into the hinterland. Later, in the Holocene, when sea-level became relatively stable, regressive advance across the sands of concentrically arranged delta environments gave rise to the Younger Suite, the uppermost stratigraphical formation in the deltaic lens. Lithofacies of this suite grade upward from open shelf clays, through pro-delta slope layered clays, silts, and sands, to well-bedded sands formed on the delta-front platform, river mouth bars, and beaches. Behind beach idge barrier islands fringing the visible part of the delta occur tidal mangrove swamps in which organic-rich sands and silts are being deposited. Cross-stratified river bar sands are accumulating in association with top-stratum silts and clays in the delta floodplain environment. The sedimentary framework of the Late Quaternary Niger delta is based on essentially concentric facies elements, as in many other "classical" deltas, rather than on radial elements as in the Mississippi birdfoot delta.

328 citations


"Basic Engineering Geological Proper..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Detailed studies of the Quaternary deposits of the Niger Delta by Allen (1965) revealed that the sediments were deposited under the influence of fluctuating Pleistocene eustatic sea levels....

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  • ...Five major geomorphological units have been recognized in the Niger Delta (Allen, 1965; Short and Stauble, 1967) (Fig....

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  • ...1: The major geomorphic units of the Niger Delta (Allen, 1965)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt is made to evaluate the geotechnical characteristics of Ghanaian laterite materials, and the results of the study have revealed that the soil-forming factors considerably influence the distribution of geotehnical characteristics.

80 citations


"Basic Engineering Geological Proper..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Lateritic soils are the product of intensive weathering that occurs under tropical and subtropical climatic condition resulting in the accumulation of hydrated iron and aluminum oxides (Alexander and Cady, 1962; Gidigasu, 1972)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study of the engineering geological properties, distribution and classification of the major superficial soils of the Niger Delta was carried out as part of a study programme to provide the much needed information and data for the infrastructural development of the region as discussed by the authors.

67 citations


"Basic Engineering Geological Proper..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...The percent fines for A-2 materials are between 15-33% which is consistent with the work of Akpokodje (1987)....

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  • ...While Akpokodje (1987) stated that the range of dominant percentage fines in A-7 materials is between 51-60%, this study revealed that 42-46% fines for the dominant A-7 materials....

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  • ...Considerable studies have been carried out on the engineering geological properties of the soil by various researchers (Akpokodje, 1986a, 1986b; Alabo and Pandy, 1987; Alabo et al., 1983; Arumala and Akpokodje, 1987; Leton and Omotosho, 2004; Omotosho and Eze-Uzomaka, 2008)....

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