Batch Adsorption Studies on Treatment of Textile Industry Effluent using Bamboo and Green Coconut shell Activated Carbon
01 Nov 2020-Vol. 983, Iss: 1, pp 012005
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of various process parameters such as the amount of adsorbents, initial concentration of dye, pH, contact time, temperature and agitation speed on percentage removal of dye on the activated carbon was investigated.
Abstract: The use of activated carbon (AC) as a strong adsorbent was commonly used. This work deals with the study of textile industry wastewater (dye) adsorption on AC produced from Bamboo and Green coconut shell through chemical activation method. The effect of various process parameters such as the amount of adsorbents, initial concentration of dye, pH, contact time, temperature and agitation speed on percentage removal of dye on the activated carbon i.e. Bamboo activated carbon (BAC) and Green Coconut Shell Activated carbon (GCSAC) batch adsorption tests were investigated. Testing was performed for quantitative description of Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Based on the experimental findings, the equilibrium was observed in 6 hours. Langmuir isotherm was the best suited for the adsorption of dye, with a maximal adsorption capacity of 142.86 mg / gm. The removal of dye by the use of BAC has been found to be greater than GCSAC.
TL;DR: In this paper, the synthesis and performance of Activated Carbon (AC) derived from different carbonaceous precursors for pollutants removal, the role of activation techniques, pollutant specific modifications, regeneration techniques, and their disposal are covered.
Abstract: Rapid urbanization has led to the generation of a large quantum of complex wastewater comprising of recalcitrant organic and inorganic pollutants. The inability of the conventional treatment techniques to bring down the recalcitrant pollutant concentrations below desired standards has paved the way for the emergence of tertiary treatment technologies. Among various tertiary treatment techniques, adsorption is widely preferred due to the ease of operation, high removal performances, and diverse on-field applications. Activated carbon (AC) has found immense popularity due to easy synthesis routes, high stability, large specific surface area (SSA), etc. The synthesis and performance of AC derived from different carbonaceous precursors for pollutants removal, the role of activation techniques, pollutant specific modifications, regeneration techniques, and their disposal, are covered in this article. Trend analysis showed that research on AC derived from agricultural waste and sludge has a high potential for at least another 50 and 25 years, respectively. Most of the precursors are chemically activated to prepare the AC, which may be further modified using the metal impregnation technique for removing specific pollutants. Among various ACs, maximum mean pore volume has been shown by sludge-based AC (1.17 cm3/g) and the maximum mean SSA value has been exhibited by husk-based AC (1339 m2/g). AC is mostly used to treat dyes and metals, followed by pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and other recalcitrant organics. Moreover, by implementing microwave-assisted and biological-based regeneration techniques, the life of the AC can be increased and may serve as an efficient adsorbent for wastewater treatment for a prolonged duration.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used activated carbon made from waste fruit peels (orange) as an adsorbent material for removing methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions.
Abstract: The presence of dye materials has a direct effect on water quality and the elimination of such pollutants is of prime importance. In this study, activated carbon was prepared using waste fruit peels (orange), and the experiments were conducted in order to determine the uptake of methylene blue (MB) by the activated carbon of waste fruit peels (orange). Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the effect of several experimental parameters such as adsorbent dose (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 g/L), initial MB concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 ppm), temperature (40, 50, 60℃), contact time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 min.) and pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 11). Maximum adsorption of MB has been obtained at an adsorbent dose of 0.8 g/L, a dye concentration of 100 ppm, temperature of 60 °C and a pH of 11. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the equilibrium data and the Langmuir isotherm model with 142.86 mg/g at 60℃ best described the equilibrium data. Activated carbon made from waste fruit peels (orange) was found to be effective for removing MB from aqueous solutions. According to the findings of this investigation, natural adsorbents such as activated carbon from orange fruit peel powder can be used as an adsorbent material due to its selectivity for the removal of MB from an aqueous solution.
TL;DR: An approach to the synthesis, characterization, and dye removal capabilities of nano-metal oxides-activated carbons is presented in this paper , which also includes a discussion of several operating parameters associated with the adsorption process.
Abstract: It is common for dyes to be utilized in a wide range of industries such as leather and textiles as well as the printing, paper, and packaging industry. Most dyes fall into a dangerous category of water toxins that have had a significant impact on the ecosystem. Dye removal from wastewater can be done in a variety of methods. It is now necessary to develop advanced and cost-effective methods. Organic dyes may be removed from textiles using adsorption, which is a more effective and environmentally beneficial process. Nanomaterials are a more attractive option for dye removal because of their unique characteristics. An approach to the synthesis, characterization, and dye removal capabilities of nano-metal oxides-activated carbons is presented. This review also includes a discussion of several operating parameters associated with the adsorption process, adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic behavior, and reusability of the adsorbent.
TL;DR: In this paper , a review of existing studies on pesticide degradation using a combination of ultrasonic and photocatalysis technologies is presented, which is critical for reducing environmental problems related to pesticides.
Abstract: Pesticides such as fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides, which are frequently used in agricultural applications and have adverse effects on humans and pollute the environment, are the leading cause of production. There are several strategies for removing pesticides, including traditional techniques that include physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes, although they are not very effective in removing pesticides. Because of the intense creation of oxidative free radicals, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have recently received a lot of interest. For the mineralization of many organic compounds, AOPs are more successful when photocatalysis and ultrasound are combined. We explore how degradation is affected by many parameters such as catalyst loading, light intensity, pH of the solution, initial pesticide concentrations, support-based catalysts, and suspended catalysts in this review paper. This review also summarizes existing studies on pesticide degradation using a combination of ultrasonic and photocatalysis technologies, which is critical for reducing environmental problems related to pesticides.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors provide an overview of applications for various agricultural waste materials added to their ability to absorb heavy metals, and discuss the treatment procedure's effectiveness, difficulties, effects on the environment and public health, and other elements.
Abstract: Environmental pollution has been determined to be the root cause of a large number of deaths and illnesses around the world. Heavy metals in wastewater have been a major problem in recent years due to their hazardous effects. Human health, living resources, and ecological systems are all at risk because of the increasing levels of hazardous metals that are being released into the environment as industrial wastes. Heavy metals in wastewater are strictly regulated by environmental organizations and authorities due to their harmful health impacts and toxicological properties. As a result, adequate safeguards must be taken, and technologies for detecting, quantifying, and removing heavy metals from effluent waterways must be developed. The most prevalent method for removing heavy metals from wastewater is adsorption. As a result of recent advances in adsorption technology, it's a potential wastewater treatment method. In recent years, the utilization of agricultural waste materials has grown in popularity. Due to their physicochemical and nontoxic properties, agricultural wastes have the potential to be employed as adsorbents. A low-cost adsorbent made from agricultural waste is one of the most common applications for agricultural waste products. This review provides an overview of applications for various agricultural waste materials added to their ability to absorb heavy metals. The different properties of agricultural waste materials are also summarized. The review article also covered the treatment procedure’s effectiveness, difficulties, effects on the environment and public health, and other elements. The process parameters, the adsorption isotherm, and the adsorption kinetics are all thoroughly discussed. In this review, it has been shown that several heavy metals can be effectively removed from wastewater using inexpensive adsorbents.
TL;DR: The conversion of waste products into effective adsorbents and their application for water treatment and the possible mechanism of adsorption on these adsorbent has been included in this article.
Abstract: Water pollution due to organic contaminants is a serious issue because of acute toxicities and carcinogenic nature of the pollutants. Among various water treatment methods, adsorption is supposed as the best one due to its inexpensiveness, universal nature and ease of operation. Many waste materials used include fruit wastes, coconut shell, scrap tyres, bark and other tannin-rich materials, sawdust and other wood type materials, rice husk, petroleum wastes, fertilizer wastes, fly ash, sugar industry wastes blast furnace slag, chitosan and seafood processing wastes, seaweed and algae, peat moss, clays, red mud, zeolites, sediment and soil, ore minerals etc. These adsorbents have been found to remove various organic pollutants ranging from 80 to 99.9%. The present article describes the conversion of waste products into effective adsorbents and their application for water treatment. The possible mechanism of adsorption on these adsorbents has also been included in this article. Besides, attempts have been made to discuss the future perspectives of low cost adsorbents in water treatment.
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution was investigated.
Abstract: This study investigates the potential use of bael shell carbon (BSC) as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, temperature, pH, and dye concentration were studied. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The dye uptake process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression at pH 5.7, 7 and 8 whereas the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was fitted well at pH 9. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models were applied to fit adsorption equilibrium data. The best-fitted data was obtained with the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of CR onto BSC was endothermic in nature and favorable with the positive ΔH° value of 13.613 kJ/mol.
TL;DR: In this article, the use of two-stage activation process with semi-carbonization stage up to 200°C as first stage followed by an activation stage at a desired temperature, for production of activated carbon from carbonaceous precursors using phosphoric acid.
Abstract: The present work comprehensively addresses various experimental methods reported in the literature and substantiates the use of two-stage activation process with semi-carbonization stage up to 200°C as first stage followed by an activation stage at a desired temperature, for production of activated carbon from carbonaceous precursors using phosphoric acid. Efforts are made towards developing a high surface area activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust by a two-stage activation process with phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Experiments are conducted in a lab scale muffle furnace under static conditions in a self-generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratio, carbonization time and temperature. The precursor material with impregnation agent is exposed straightaway to semi-carbonization and activation temperature unlike following the specific temperature progression as reported in the literature. The process parameters are optimized based on product yield and iodine number. Semi-carbonization at 200°C for 15 min followed by activation at 500°C for 45 min with impregnation ratio of 1.5 yielded a product with iodine number 1096 which corresponds to a BET surface area of 1496 m 2 / g with the product yield of 35% and activation agent recovery of 90%.
TL;DR: Experimental results revealed that low concentrations of ZnCl2 solution tended to improve the microporosity of the final product, and 1:4 in terms of coconut husk to sewage sludge based on their dried weights was found to be most cost effective.
Abstract: Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising way to dispose of sewage sludge as well as to produce a low-cost adsorbent for pollutant removal. This research work aimed to optimise the condition for activated carbon preparation from anaerobically digested sewage sludge with the additive coconut husk. The sewage sludge sample was mixed with the additive coconut husk. The preparation condition variables investigated involved the concentration of the ZnCl2 solutions, heating temperature, dwell time and heating rate in pyrolysis and the mixing ratio of coconut husk to sewage sludge. Surface area, pore size distribution, aqueous phenol adsorption capacity and the production yield of the final products were determined and compared. Experimental results revealed that low concentrations of ZnCl2 solution tended to improve the microporosity of the final product. Heating temperature had a considerable impact on the surface area, pore size distribution and phenol adsorption capacity of the final products, whereas dwell time and heating rate performed comparatively insignificantly. The effect of increasing the mixing ratio of coconut husk to sewage sludge was principally to increase the microporosity of the final products. The activated carbon with the highest BET surface area was produced with the activation of 5 M ZnCl2 solution and, thereafter, pyrolysis at a heating temperature of 500°C for 2 h with a heating rate of 10°C/min. The mixing ratio of 1:4 in terms of coconut husk to sewage sludge based on their dried weights was found to be most cost effective.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of the initial pH of the dye solution, biosorbent dosage and contact time between the dye and the biosorbents on the biosorption capacities of the bios absorbents were studied.
Abstract: Mango seed, an abundant residue of the food industry, was used in its natural form (MS) and protonated form (AMS) as a biosorbent for the removal of Victazol Orange 3R (VO-3R) dye from its aqueous solutions. These biosorbents were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by nitrogen adsorption/desorption curves. Optimization of the effects of the initial pH of the dye solution, biosorbent dosage and contact time between the dye and the biosorbents on the biosorption capacities of the biosorbents was studied. Based on an error function ( F error ), the general order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data when compared to the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic biosorption models. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models. For both biosorbents, the equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. Finally, the mechanism of biosorption involving VO-3R and lignin–cellulose was evaluated using the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The results suggest that water molecules play a key role in the biosorption process.