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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2021.3063632

Beam-Domain Anti-Jamming Transmission for Downlink Massive MIMO Systems: A Stackelberg Game Perspective

02 Mar 2021-IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 16, pp 2727-2742
Abstract: In this paper, beam-domain (BD) anti-jamming transmission in a downlink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is investigated. A smart jammer with multiple antennas attempts to interfere with the signal reception of users with the desired energy efficiency (EE), whereas a base station (BS) tries to minimize the transmission cost while ensuring uninterrupted communication. A Bayesian Stackelberg game between the BS and jammer, where the jammer is the follower and the BS acts as the leader, is modeled. In the follower subgame, the optimal jamming precoding with a closed-form power solution is introduced. The optimal jamming power is proportional to the transmission power in the downlink, and thus, for the BS, the strategy of suppressing malicious attacks by increasing the transmission power fails. In the leader subgame, generalized zero-forcing (ZF), whose closed-form power solution constitutes the unique Stackelberg equilibrium (SE) with that of the jammer, is found to be the optimal anti-jamming precoding for robust transmission. The results show that there always exists a precoding solution for the BS that ensures reliable transmission when the SE is obtained. A proper increase in the minimum signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) threshold or the BD channel approximation error helps the BS save power during the resistance against the jammer. Then, a simplified power solution without the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of jamming channels is further introduced for practical implementation. Numerical results are provided to verify the proposed solutions.

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Topics: Precoding (59%), Stackelberg competition (55%), Jamming (54%) ... read more
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12 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3073325
14 Apr 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is playing a crucial role in the fifth generation (5G) and beyond 5G (B5G) communication systems. Unfortunately, the complexity of massive MIMO systems is tremendously increased when a large number of antennas and radio frequency chains (RF) are utilized. Therefore, a plethora of research efforts has been conducted to find the optimal precoding algorithm with lowest complexity. The main aim of this paper is to provide insights on such precoding algorithms to a generalist of wireless communications. The added value of this paper is that the classification of massive MIMO precoding algorithms is provided with easily distinguishable classes of precoding solutions. This paper covers linear precoding algorithms starting with precoders based on approximate matrix inversion methods such as the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE), the Neumann series approximation (NSA), the Newton iteration (NI), and the Chebyshev iteration (CI) algorithms. The paper also presents the fixed-point iteration-based linear precoding algorithms such as the Gauss-Seidel (GS) algorithm, the successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm, the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, and the Jacobi iteration (JI) algorithm. In addition, the paper reviews the direct matrix decomposition based linear precoding algorithms such as the QR decomposition and Cholesky decomposition (CD). The non-linear precoders are also presented which include the dirty-paper coding (DPC), Tomlinson-Harashima (TH), vector perturbation (VP), and lattice reduction aided (LR) algorithms. Due to the necessity to deal with a high consuming power by the base station (BS) with a large number of antennas in massive MIMO systems, a special subsection is included to describe the characteristics of the peak-to-average power ratio precoding (PAPR) algorithms such as the constant envelope (CE) algorithm, approximate message passing (AMP), and quantized precoding (QP) algorithms. This paper also reviews the machine learning role in precoding techniques. Although many precoding techniques are essentially proposed for a small-scale MIMO, they have been exploited in massive MIMO networks. Therefore, this paper presents the application of small-scale MIMO precoding techniques for massive MIMO. This paper demonstrates the precoding schemes in promising multiple antenna technologies such as the cell-free massive MIMO (CF-M-MIMO), beamspace massive MIMO, and intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs). In-depth discussion on the pros and cons, performance-complexity profile, and implementation solidity is provided. This paper also provides a discussion on the channel estimation and energy efficiency. This paper also presents potential future directions in massive MIMO precoding algorithms.

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Topics: Precoding (69%), MIMO (62%), QR decomposition (53%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3100799
27 Jul 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: The increasing demand for higher data rates motivates the exploration of advanced techniques for future wireless networks. To this end, massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) is envisioned as the most essential technique to meet this demand. However, the expansion of the number of antennas in mMIMO systems with short coherence time makes the downlink channel estimation (DCE) overhead potentially overwhelming. As such, the number of training sequence (TS) needs to be significantly reduced. However, reducing the number of TS reduces the mean-squared error (MSE) accuracy significantly and to date it is not clear to what extend can this TS reduction affects the achievable sum rate performance. Therefore, this paper develops a low complexity and tractable TS solution for DCE and establishes an analytical framework for the optimum TS. Furthermore, the tradeoff between the achievable sum rate maximization criteria and the MSE minimization criteria is investigated. This investigation is essential to characterize the optimum TS length and the actual performance of mMIMO systems when the channel exhibits a limited coherence time. To this end, the statistical structure of mMIMO channels is exploited. In addition, this paper utilizes a random matrix theory (RMT) method to characterize the downlink achievable sum rate and MSE in a closed-form. This paper shows that maximizing the downlink sum rate criterion is more important than minimizing the MSE of the SINR only, which is typically considered in the conventional MIMO systems and/or in the time division duplex (TDD) mMIMO systems. The results demonstrate that a feasible downlink achievable sum rate can be achieved in an frequency division duplex (FDD) mMIMO system. This finding is necessary to extend the benefit of mMIMO systems to high frequency bands such as millimeter-wave (mmWave) and Terahertz (THZ) communications.

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2 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have been recently considered as a promising candidate for energy-efficient solutions in future wireless networks. Their dynamic and lowpower configuration enables coverage extension, massive connectivity, and low-latency communications. Due to a large number of unknown variables referring to the RIS unit elements and the transmitted signals, channel estimation and signal recovery in RIS-based systems are the ones of the most critical technical challenges. To address this problem, we focus on the RIS-assisted multi-user wireless communication system and present a joint channel estimation and signal recovery algorithm in this paper. Specifically, we propose a bidirectional approximate message passing algorithm that applies the Taylor series expansion and Gaussian approximation to simplify the sum-product algorithm in the formulated problem. Our simulation results show that the proposed algorithm shows the superiority over a state-of-art benchmark method. We also provide insights on the impact of different RIS parameter settings on the proposed algorithms.

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Topics: Message passing (55%), Wireless network (52%), Communication channel (51%) ... read more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3094560
01 Jan 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the uplink (UL) communication of a massive multi-user (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) hybrid beamforming system (HBFS) in which the transmitting user-equipments are affected by IQ imbalance (IQI). We first show that if the transmitter IQI is not compensated, it will result in a finite ceiling of the UL achievable sum-rate at high signal-to-noise ratio, which only depends on the transmitter IQI matrices and is independent of the propagation channel and the choice of the hybrid combining matrices. This justifies the need for transmitter IQI compensation in massive MU-MIMO HBFS. Therefore, we propose a novel zero-forcing based transmitter IQI compensation algorithm to be implemented at the base station which effectively mitigates the undesired effects of transmitter IQI and is applicable for any channel model and any choice of the number of RF chains. For uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channel, we derive an approximate closed-form expression of the UL sum-rate achieved by the massive MU-MIMO HBFS with the proposed transmitter IQI compensation. Finally, numerical results are presented which confirm the effectiveness of the proposed transmitter IQI compensation algorithm in mitigating the undesired effects of transmitter IQI in different channel environments.

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Topics: MIMO (52%), Transmitter (52%)

References
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50 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00401706.1995.10484391
Steven Kay1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1993-Technometrics
Abstract: (1995). Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Estimation Theory. Technometrics: Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 465-466.

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13,734 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TAP.1986.1143830
Abstract: Processing the signals received on an array of sensors for the location of the emitter is of great enough interest to have been treated under many special case assumptions. The general problem considers sensors with arbitrary locations and arbitrary directional characteristics (gain/phase/polarization) in a noise/interference environment of arbitrary covariance matrix. This report is concerned first with the multiple emitter aspect of this problem and second with the generality of solution. A description is given of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which provides asymptotically unbiased estimates of 1) number of incident wavefronts present; 2) directions of arrival (DOA) (or emitter locations); 3) strengths and cross correlations among the incident waveforms; 4) noise/interference strength. Examples and comparisons with methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum entropy (ME), as well as conventional beamforming are included. An example of its use as a multiple frequency estimator operating on time series is included.

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Topics: Direction of arrival (56%), Estimation theory (56%), Array processing (55%) ... read more

11,499 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/1911749
J. B. Rosen1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 1965-Econometrica
Abstract: Existence and uniqueness of equilibrium points for concave n-person games - dynamic model for nonequilibrium situations

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Topics: Uniqueness (58%), Game theory (56%), Equilibrium point (51%)

2,127 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2008.060848
Satashu Goel1, Rohit Negi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The broadcast nature of the wireless medium makes the communication over this medium vulnerable to eavesdropping. This paper considers the problem of secret communication between two nodes, over a fading wireless medium, in the presence of a passive eavesdropper. The assumption used is that the transmitter and its helpers (amplifying relays) have more antennas than the eavesdropper. The transmitter ensures secrecy of communication by utilizing some of the available power to produce 'artificial noise', such that only the eavesdropper's channel is degraded. Two scenarios are considered, one where the transmitter has multiple transmit antennas, and the other where amplifying relays simulate the effect of multiple antennas. The channel state information (CSI) is assumed to be publicly known, and hence, the secrecy of communication is independent of the secrecy of CSI.

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Topics: Channel state information (57%), Artificial noise (55%), Fading (52%) ... read more

1,677 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/1062689.1062697
25 May 2005-
Abstract: Wireless networks are built upon a shared medium that makes it easy for adversaries to launch jamming-style attacks. These attacks can be easily accomplished by an adversary emitting radio frequency signals that do not follow an underlying MAC protocol. Jamming attacks can severely interfere with the normal operation of wireless networks and, consequently, mechanisms are needed that can cope with jamming attacks. In this paper, we examine radio interference attacks from both sides of the issue: first, we study the problem of conducting radio interference attacks on wireless networks, and second we examine the critical issue of diagnosing the presence of jamming attacks. Specifically, we propose four different jamming attack models that can be used by an adversary to disable the operation of a wireless network, and evaluate their effectiveness in terms of how each method affects the ability of a wireless node to send and receive packets. We then discuss different measurements that serve as the basis for detecting a jamming attack, and explore scenarios where each measurement by itself is not enough to reliably classify the presence of a jamming attack. In particular, we observe that signal strength and carrier sensing time are unable to conclusively detect the presence of a jammer. Further, we observe that although by using packet delivery ratio we may differentiate between congested and jammed scenarios, we are nonetheless unable to conclude whether poor link utility is due to jamming or the mobility of nodes. The fact that no single measurement is sufficient for reliably classifying the presence of a jammer is an important observation, and necessitates the development of enhanced detection schemes that can remove ambiguity when detecting a jammer. To address this need, we propose two enhanced detection protocols that employ consistency checking. The first scheme employs signal strength measurements as a reactive consistency check for poor packet delivery ratios, while the second scheme employs location information to serve as the consistency check. Throughout our discussions, we examine the feasibility and effectiveness of jamming attacks and detection schemes using the MICA2 Mote platform.

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Topics: Jamming (59%), Wireless network (55%), Denial-of-service attack (53%) ... read more

1,252 Citations