scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Belsen, Dachau 1945: Newspapers and the first draft of history.

TL;DR: The authors examined the nature of press coverage in 1945, identifying themes that emerged in British and American newspaper reportage of two Nazi concentration camps, Belsen and Dachau, following liberation and during military trials.
Abstract: The thesis examines the nature of press coverage in 1945, identifying themes that emerged in British and American newspaper reportage of two Nazi concentration camps, Belsen and Dachau, following liberation and during military trials. It grapples with the links between early reporting and ongoing misunderstandings about the concentration camp system.

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Belsen, Dachau, 1945:
Newspapers and the First Draft of History
by
Sarah Coates
BA (Hons.)
Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Deakin University
March 2016

Signature Redacted by Library

Signature Redacted by Library

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to acknowledge the opportunities Deakin University has
provided me over the past eight years; not least the opportunity to
undertake my Ph.D. Travel grants were especially integral to my research
and assistance through a scholarship was also greatly appreciated. The
Deakin University administrative staff and specifically the Higher Degree
by Research staff provided essential support during my candidacy. I also
wish to acknowledge the Library staff, especially Marion Churkovich and
Lorraine Driscoll and the interlibrary loans department, and sincerely thank
Dr Murray Noonan for copy-editing this thesis.
The collections accessed as part of an International Justice Research
fellowship undertaken in 2014 at the Thomas J Dodd Centre made a positive
contribution to my archival research. I would like to thank Lisa Laplante,
interim director of the Dodd Research Center, for overseeing my stay at the
University of Connecticut and Graham Stinnett, Curator of Human Rights
Collections, for help in accessing the Dodd Papers. I also would like to
acknowledge the staff at the Bergen-Belsen Gedenkstätte and Dachau
Concentration Camp Memorial who assisted me during research visits.
My heartfelt gratitude is offered to those who helped me in various ways
during overseas travel. Rick Gretsch welcomed me on my first day in New
York and put a first-time traveller at ease. Patty Foley’s hospitality and
warmth made my stay in Connecticut so very memorable. The kindness and
generosity shown to me by the Parker family in Salzburg, Austria was
remarkable. Thankyou Emma for making this trip truly special.
This thesis would not have been possible without the ongoing support,
patience, and dedication of my supervisors Professor David Lowe, Dr Tony
Joel and Pam Maclean. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to
David Lowe for bringing a different perspective to my thesis and offering
excellent advice during the writing process, and Pam Maclean for providing
invaluable insights and demonstrating such enthusiasm for my research. A
special thank you goes to Tony Joel who has guided and mentored me over

the past five years. Tony saw potential in a quiet girl from Colac who had
an interest in the Holocaust and inspired me to challenge myself
academically. I would not have dreamt that this was possible without him. I
appreciated the green pen and the meticulous attention to detail just as
much as the anecdotes and “quick chats”.
I was lucky to have had flexible and enjoyable employment throughout the
duration of my Ph.D. To my work colleagues, in particular Kerry Symonds
and Peter Lucas, who made work a positive place and offered timely words
of assurance. To David and Helen Baulch, thank you for your generosity
and for providing me with ongoing employment. I am incredibly grateful
also to my close group of friends and fellow HDR students. You were my
cheerleaders and for this I thank you. Rebecca Gaylard and Gemma
Simpson your care and understanding were especially fabulous. I shared the
highs and lows of this crazy ride with Mathew Turner. A valued friend and
confidant, Mat made me realise how important it is just to “endure”.
Special thanks also to Lisa Couacaud for comforting me in times of great
stress and for reading over final drafts. I hope to return the favour in the
future. To Maddison Crabbe and Phil Wishart, my second family, our
standing Tuesday night dinners were more important than you knew. Thank
you, for always being there.
Most importantly, I am indebted to my family who have been on this Ph.D.
journey from the beginning and have experienced the ups and downs along
the way. I am fortunate to have a caring and supportive extended family.
Especially dear to me is my Granny, Dorothy O’Dowd, who always believed
in me and offered words of encouragement. My beloved grandparents,
William O’Dowd and Patricia and Norman Coates, were also great sources
of support. I want to acknowledge Maree Coates who provided words of
wisdom and read over final drafts. I offer my heartfelt thanks to Chris and
Emma Coates who have been constant sources of support and have given me
a great joy in Maggie. My greatest debt of gratitude is to my parents,
Leanne and Michael Coates, whose love and encouragement has been
overwhelming. I cannot thank you enough. Know that you are responsible
for all my best qualities. Mum, your unwavering belief in me has helped me
achieve something of which I am immensely proud. This thesis is as much
for you as it is for me.

Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism are discussed. And the history of European ideas: Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 721-722.

13,842 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Novick as discussed by the authors argues that the Holocaust became more ubiquitous in American cultural and political life after 1968 than it had been in the postwar years, rejecting psychoanalytically informed accounts that explain this lag in terms of "trauma" or "repression."
Abstract: The Holocaust in American Life. By Peter Novick. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. Pp. 1, 373. Cloth, $27.00) In this engaging and important study, Peter Novick undertakes two primary tasks: to offer an historical account of how the Holocaust became such a prominent feature of American cultural and political life, and to question the widely held assumption that this prominence is an inherently good thing. In addition to these goals, Novick seeks to debunk the claim that the Holocaust stands apart from other atrocities as a unique purveyor of moral lessons. Indeed, he takes his case one step further by contending that, in the end, the Holocaust may actually offer no moral lessons at all. In tracing the history of the Holocaust in American life, Novick is largely successful. Like other recent scholarship on this themes, Novick argues that, while Americans were not silent about Nazi atrocities during and immediately after the war, the "Holocaust" was not recognized as a discrete historical event until decades later. In contending that the Holocaust became more ubiquitous in American cultural and political life after 1968 than it had been in the postwar years, Novick rejects psychoanalytically informed accounts that explain this lag in terms of "trauma" or "repression." Drawing on a wide range of published and unpublished sources, Novick argues that in the years following World War II, public discussion of the Holocaust was muted because it ran counter not only to the aims of organized American Jewry, but to the broader cultural and political climate of postwar America. The demands of the Cold War and the new alliance between Germany and the United States required that Stalinism, rather than the Holocaust, be cast as the most damning crime of the modern age. Leaders of the American Jewish community promulgated this view and were largely silent about the Holocaust in an attempt to dispel stereotypes that identified Jews with both Bolshevism and eternal victimhood. An excessive public preoccupation with the Holocaust was seen as incompatible with a rapidly assimilating American Jewish community, determined to participate fully in euphoric postwar prosperity. While the destruction of European Jewry was surely a "widely shared Jewish sorrow" during these years, it was, according to Novick, a sorrow shared largely in private. By the mid-1960s, this had begun to change. Novick cites the 1961 trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann and the subsequent publication of Hannah Arendt's controversial Eichmann in Jerusalem as two of the major catalysts for a growing public discussion of the Holocaust. A less obvious claim is that the heightened public preoccupation with the Holocaust in the late 1960s and 1970s coincided with the birth of identity politics, reflecting both a broader shift away from an integrationist ethos to a particularist one, and the growth of a "victim culture" that increasingly valorized oppression and suffering over heroism. While not everyone may agree with Novick's implicitly critical definition of identity politics, this is an important dimension of his argument, for it offers a compelling, if only partial explanation for the ubiquity of the Holocaust in contemporary American life. It was only within a political culture that valorized victimization that the Holocaust could become the locus of so many strong and contradictory feelings, including possessiveness, proprietariness, envy, and resentment. Novick is also interested in how, by the late 1960s, a growing public Holocaust discourse reflected the shifting priorities of organized American Jewry, and here, too, he offers an illuminating account of how Jewish leaders once reticent about the Holocaust were now placing it at the top of their political agendas. In their concern over escalating rates of intermarriage and waning interest in organized Judaism, leaders now seized on the Holocaust in order to shore up a sense of American Jewish identity and to caution American Jews against the dangers of complacency. …

736 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Mar 1987-JAMA
TL;DR: Robert Jay Lifton, a renowned psychiatrist and author, spent a decade interviewing Nazi doctors and concentration camp survivors to piece together the horrifying process by which German physicians aided (for the most part willingly) in the destruction of 6 million innocent men, women, and children.
Abstract: If a lexicon were compiled of the greatest inhumanities man has visited on his fellows, the Holocaust would surely be the preeminent subject. The Nazi "final solution," promulgated in January 1942 at the Wansee Conference, was dedicated to the permanent eradication of Judaism. It was not a conceptual reshuffling of religious identity by conversion but rather a physical destruction. This genocidal purging was deemed a necessary program to rid the world, and more specifically the Aryan people, of the genetic reservoir of polluting Jewish genes.How this monstrous endeavor could be conceived and accomplished is the subject of Robert Jay Lifton's The Nazi Doctors. Dr Lifton, a renowned psychiatrist and author, spent a decade interviewing Nazi doctors and concentration camp survivors to piece together the horrifying process by which German physicians aided (for the most part willingly) in the destruction of 6 million innocent men, women, and children. Dr Lifton

373 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, Browning reconstructs the final solution of the Jewish question at Lublin district in 1942, based on the materials from Federal Central Office for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes and Federal Archives set up in Koblenz.
Abstract: In his book Ch. Browning reconstructs the “final solution of the Jewish question” at Lublin district in 1942. Grounding his study on the materials from Federal Central Office for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes and Federal Archives set up in Koblenz, the author undertakes a socio-psychological analysis of the personalities and actions of the policemen from Reserve Police Battalion 101 of German Order Police.

107 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism are discussed. And the history of European ideas: Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 721-722.

13,842 citations

Book
28 Mar 2011
TL;DR: The first edition of "Eichmann in Jerusalem" appeared as a series of articles in "The New Yorker" in 1963 and was later published as a book in 1970 as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Hannah Arendt's portrayal of the terrible consequences of blind obedience, "Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil" contains an introduction by Amos Elon in "Penguin Classics". Sparking a flurry of heated debate, Hannah Arendt's authoritative and stunning report on the trial of German Nazi SS leader Adolf Eichmann first appeared as a series of articles in "The New Yorker" in 1963. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt's postscript commenting on the controversy that arose over her book. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, "Eichmann in Jerusalem" is as shocking as it is informative - a meticulous and unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the twentieth century. Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) was for many years University Professor of Political Philosophy in the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research and a Visiting Fellow of the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago. She is also the author of "Eichmann in Jerusalem", "On Revolution", and "Between Past and Future". If you enjoyed "Eichmann in Jerusalem", you might like Elie Wiesel's "Night", available in "Penguin Modern Classics". "Deals with the greatest problem of our time ...the problem of the human being within a modern totalitarian system". (Bruno Bettelheim, "The New Republic"). "A profound and documented analysis...Bound to stir our minds and trouble our consciences". ("Chicago Tribune").

2,986 citations

Book
05 Jun 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the need and recognition of emotions as judgments of value, and the need for human beings to recognize their need for love and need to express it.
Abstract: Part I. Need and Recognition: 1. Emotions as judgments of value 2. Humans and other animals: the neo-stoic view revised 3. Emotions and human societies 4. Emotions and infancy Interlude: 'things such as might happen' 5. Music and emotion Part II. Compassion: 6. Tragic predicaments 7. Compassion: the philosophical debate 8. Compassion and public life Part III. Ascents of Love: 9. Ladders of love: an introduction 10. Contemplative creativity: Plato, Spinoza, Proust 11. The Christian ascent: Augustine 12. The Christian ascent: Dante 13. The Romantic ascent: Emily Bronte 14. The Romantic ascent: Mahler 15. Democratic desire: Walt Whitman 16. The transfiguration of everyday life: Joyce.

2,371 citations

Book
24 Oct 2006
TL;DR: Analysing Newspapers as mentioned in this paper provides students of journalism, communication studies and discourse analysis with a systematic, discourse-based framework for the critical study of newspaper reporting, assuming no prior knowledge of discursive theory.
Abstract: 'Analysing Newspapers' provides students of journalism, communication studies and discourse analysis with a systematic, discourse-based framework for the critical study of newspaper reporting. Assuming no prior knowledge of discursive theory, the book explores how the language of journalism works--its power, its function and its effects. Using wide-ranging and highly topical case studies and examples, students are shown discourse analysis of journalism "in action". Identifying and exploring key linguistic concepts and tools, Richardson provides a detailed introduction to a practical model of critical discourse analysis which students will be able to apply to their own newspaper research.

879 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Novick as discussed by the authors argues that the Holocaust became more ubiquitous in American cultural and political life after 1968 than it had been in the postwar years, rejecting psychoanalytically informed accounts that explain this lag in terms of "trauma" or "repression."
Abstract: The Holocaust in American Life. By Peter Novick. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. Pp. 1, 373. Cloth, $27.00) In this engaging and important study, Peter Novick undertakes two primary tasks: to offer an historical account of how the Holocaust became such a prominent feature of American cultural and political life, and to question the widely held assumption that this prominence is an inherently good thing. In addition to these goals, Novick seeks to debunk the claim that the Holocaust stands apart from other atrocities as a unique purveyor of moral lessons. Indeed, he takes his case one step further by contending that, in the end, the Holocaust may actually offer no moral lessons at all. In tracing the history of the Holocaust in American life, Novick is largely successful. Like other recent scholarship on this themes, Novick argues that, while Americans were not silent about Nazi atrocities during and immediately after the war, the "Holocaust" was not recognized as a discrete historical event until decades later. In contending that the Holocaust became more ubiquitous in American cultural and political life after 1968 than it had been in the postwar years, Novick rejects psychoanalytically informed accounts that explain this lag in terms of "trauma" or "repression." Drawing on a wide range of published and unpublished sources, Novick argues that in the years following World War II, public discussion of the Holocaust was muted because it ran counter not only to the aims of organized American Jewry, but to the broader cultural and political climate of postwar America. The demands of the Cold War and the new alliance between Germany and the United States required that Stalinism, rather than the Holocaust, be cast as the most damning crime of the modern age. Leaders of the American Jewish community promulgated this view and were largely silent about the Holocaust in an attempt to dispel stereotypes that identified Jews with both Bolshevism and eternal victimhood. An excessive public preoccupation with the Holocaust was seen as incompatible with a rapidly assimilating American Jewish community, determined to participate fully in euphoric postwar prosperity. While the destruction of European Jewry was surely a "widely shared Jewish sorrow" during these years, it was, according to Novick, a sorrow shared largely in private. By the mid-1960s, this had begun to change. Novick cites the 1961 trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann and the subsequent publication of Hannah Arendt's controversial Eichmann in Jerusalem as two of the major catalysts for a growing public discussion of the Holocaust. A less obvious claim is that the heightened public preoccupation with the Holocaust in the late 1960s and 1970s coincided with the birth of identity politics, reflecting both a broader shift away from an integrationist ethos to a particularist one, and the growth of a "victim culture" that increasingly valorized oppression and suffering over heroism. While not everyone may agree with Novick's implicitly critical definition of identity politics, this is an important dimension of his argument, for it offers a compelling, if only partial explanation for the ubiquity of the Holocaust in contemporary American life. It was only within a political culture that valorized victimization that the Holocaust could become the locus of so many strong and contradictory feelings, including possessiveness, proprietariness, envy, and resentment. Novick is also interested in how, by the late 1960s, a growing public Holocaust discourse reflected the shifting priorities of organized American Jewry, and here, too, he offers an illuminating account of how Jewish leaders once reticent about the Holocaust were now placing it at the top of their political agendas. In their concern over escalating rates of intermarriage and waning interest in organized Judaism, leaders now seized on the Holocaust in order to shore up a sense of American Jewish identity and to caution American Jews against the dangers of complacency. …

736 citations