Beneficial effect of 3% milled-rice on blood glucose level and serum lipid concentrations in spontaneously non-insulin-dependent diabetic rats.
01 Oct 2007-Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Center for Academic Publications Japan)-Vol. 53, Iss: 5, pp 400-409
TL;DR: It is indicated that 3% milled-rice has beneficial effects on blood glucose level and serum lipid concentrations in spontaneously non-insulin-dependent diabetic rats.
Abstract: Three percent milled-rice was evaluated for beneficial effect on blood glucose level and serum lipid concentrations in an experiment with Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, used as model animals for spontaneously non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The same experiment was carried out using Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, the control of the OLETF rats. The results obtained from the rats given a diet containing 3% milled-rice (3% MRD) ad libitum were compared with those from rats given polished rice. During the feeding period of 140 d, body weight of the OLETF rats receiving the 3% MRD was significantly lower than that of the rats fed on the diet containing polished rice (PRD) from the 48th to the 124th days. The body weight of the LETO rats during the both periods of 90 to 104 d and 114 to 140 d was lower than that of the rats receiving the PRD. Though food intakes of the rats receiving 3% MRD were significantly lower in the OLETF and LETO rats during the two periods of days 48 to 124 and days 1 to 140 than in the rats of the PRD group, the feed efficiency of the OLETF or LETO rats did not show significant difference between the 3% MRD and the PRD groups during the same experimental periods. The excretion rate of feces of the OLETF rats receiving the 3% MRD was significantly higher than that of the rats receiving the PRD, both on the 126th day and during the period of days 129 to 131. The fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the OLETF rats receiving the 3% MRD than the rats receiving the PRD on the 84th day, the 105th day and the 127th day, and also lower in the LETO rats receiving the 3% MRD on the 84th day and the 105th day. The incremental areas under the curve of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after oral administration of glucose on the 133rd day was lower in the OLETF rats receiving 3% MRD than that of the PRD. The ratio of IAUC-Glc in the 3% MRD to PRD group, after ingestion of diets for 1 h after fasting for 18 h on the 138th day, was 0.89 in the OLETF rats, and 0.74 in the LETO rats. Compared with the PRD group, the amounts of cholesterol and bile acid in the feces of the OLETF rats in the 3% MRD group were significantly higher on days 129-131, and the cholesterol excretion was significantly higher on the 84th day in the OLETF rats in the 3% MRD group. The liver weight, the level of total lipids in liver, and the concentrations of triglyceride and total cholesterol in liver and serum of the OLETF rats on the 140th day were significantly lower in the 3% MRD than those of the PRD group. These results indicate that 3% milled-rice has beneficial effects on blood glucose level and serum lipid concentrations in spontaneously non-insulin-dependent diabetic rats.
TL;DR: ZDF rats in E1 and E2 group developed obesity, hyperglycaemia, non-insulin dependent diabetes, aggravations in haematological parameters and accumulation of sorbitol in sciatic nerve and lens of rats.
Abstract: The appropriate animal model of diabetes mellitus type 2 is Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of chronic high-energy diet on diabetes mellitus (DM) complications in ZDF rats. Male ZDF rats (n = 20) and their lean controls (non-diabetic, n = 10) in the age of 3 months were involved in the experiment. Rats were provided with water and diet on ad libitum base. Animals were divided into three groups as follows: lean untreated rats (C) fed by KKZ-P/M (10 MJ/kg), obese rats fed by KKZ-P/M (10 MJ/kg, E1) and obese rats fed by enriched high energy diet (E2, enriched KKZ-P/M, 20 MJ/kg). Glucose, ketones levels, the consumption of feed, water and the live weight was measured weekly during the whole experiment. At the end of the experiment rats were anesthetized and selected haematological parameters were measured. ZDF rats in E1 and E2 group developed obesity, hyperglycaemia, non-insulin dependent diabetes, aggravations in haematological parameters and accumulation of sorbitol in sciatic nerve and lens of rats. High-energy diet immediately induced hyperglycaemia followed by accelerating the secondary symptoms of diabetes complications expressed by disturbed haematology parameters. High-energy diet caused ketoacidosis what meant two cases of death. Extended research on diabetes is needed.
Cites background from "Beneficial effect of 3% milled-rice..."
...There is a close connection between daily dietary intake and lifestyle-related disease (Izumi et al. 2007)....
17 Oct 2019
TL;DR: A method for estimating the cholesterol content of the serum low-density lipoprotein fraction (Sf0-20) is presented and comparison of this suggested procedure with the more direct procedure, in which the ultracentrifuge is used, yielded correlation coefficients of .94 to .99.
Abstract: A method for estimating the cholesterol content of the serum low-density lipoprotein fraction (Sf0-20) is presented. The method involves measurements of fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, none of which requires the use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Comparison of this suggested procedure with the more direct procedure, in which the ultracentrifuge is used, yielded correlation coefficients of .94 to .99, depending on the patient population compared.
TL;DR: The possibility is raised that resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and hyperinsulinemia are involved in the etiology and clinical course of three major related diseases— NIDDM, hypertension, and CAD.
Abstract: Resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is present in the majority of patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in ∼25% of nonobese individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance. In these conditions, deterioration of glucose tolerance can only be prevented if the β-cell is able to increase its insulin secretory response and maintain a state of chronic hyperinsulinemia. When this goal cannot be achieved, gross decompensation of glucose homeostasis occurs. The relationship between insulin resistance, plasma insulin level, and glucose intolerance is mediated to a significant degree by changes in ambient plasma free-fatty acid (FFA) concentration. Patients with NIDDM are also resistant to insulin suppression of plasma FFA concentration, but plasma FFA concentrations can be reduced by relatively small increments in insulin concentration.Consequently, elevations of circulating plasma FFA concentration can be prevented if large amounts of insulin can be secreted. If hyperinsulinemia cannot be maintained, plasma FFA concentration will not be suppressed normally, and the resulting increase in plasma FFA concentration will lead to increased hepatic glucose production. Because these events take place in individuals who are quite resistant to insulinstimulated glucose uptake, it is apparent that even small increases in hepatic glucose production are likely to lead to significant fasting hyperglycemia under these conditions. Although hyperinsulinemia may prevent frank decompensation of glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant individuals, this compensatory response of the endocrine pancreas is not without its price. Patients with hypertension, treated or untreated, are insulin resistant, hyperglycemic, and hyperinsulinemic. In addition, a direct relationship between plasma insulin concentration and blood pressure has been noted. Hypertension can also be produced in normal rats when they are fed a fructose-enriched diet, an intervention that also leads to the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The development of hypertension in normal rats by an experimental manipulation known to induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia provides further support for the view that the relationship between the three variables may be a causal one. However, even if insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are not involved in the etiology of hypertension, it is likely that the increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with hypertension and the fact that this risk if not reduced with antihypertensive treatment are due to the clustering of risk factors for CAD, in addition to high blood pressure, associated with insulin resistance. These include hyperinsulinemia, IGT, increased plasma triglyceride concentration, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, all of which are associated with increased risk for CAD. It is likely that the same risk factors play a significant role in the genesis of CAD in the population as a whole. Based on these considerations the possibility is raised that resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and hyperinsulinemia are involved in the etiology and clinical course of three major related diseases— NIDDM, hypertension, and CAD.
TL;DR: Two new diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents because of a better balance of essential nutrients.
Abstract: For sixteen years, the American Institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets, AIN-76 and AIN-76A, have been used extensively around the world. Because of numerous nutritional and technical problems encountered with the diet during this period, it was revised. Two new formulations were derived: AIN-93G for growth, pregnancy and lactation, and AIN-93M for adult maintenance. Some major differences in the new formulation of AIN-93G compared with AIN-76A are as follows: 7 g soybean oil/100 g diet was substituted for 5 g corn oil/100 g diet to increase the amount of linolenic acid; cornstarch was substituted for sucrose; the amount of phosphorus was reduced to help eliminate the problem of kidney calcification in female rats; L-cystine was substituted for DL-methionine as the amino acid supplement for casein, known to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids; manganese concentration was lowered to one-fifth the amount in the old diet; the amounts of vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin B-12 were increased; and molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium were added to the mineral mix. For the AIN-93M maintenance diet, the amount of fat was lowered to 40 g/kg diet from 70 g/kg diet, and the amount of casein to 140 g/kg from 200 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet. Because of a better balance of essential nutrients, the AIN-93 diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents.
TL;DR: A protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women is supported, after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables.
Abstract: Background Dietary carbohydrates may influence the development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, for example, through effects on blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Objective We examined the relations of baseline intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, dietary magnesium, and carbohydrate-rich foods and the glycemic index with incidence of diabetes. Design This was a prospective cohort study of 35988 older Iowa women initially free of diabetes. During 6 y of follow-up, 1141 incident cases of diabetes were reported. Results Total grain, whole-grain, total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium intakes showed strong inverse associations with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of diabetes were 1.0, 0.99, 0.98, 0.92, and 0.79 (P for trend: 0.0089) across quintiles of whole-grain intake; 1.0, 1.09, 1.00, 0.94, and 0.78 (P for trend: 0.005) across quintiles of total dietary fiber intake; and 1.0, 0.81, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.67 (P for trend: 0.0003) across quintiles of dietary magnesium intake. Intakes of total carbohydrates, refined grains, fruit and vegetables, and soluble fiber and the glycemic index were unrelated to diabetes risk. Conclusion These data support a protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women.
TL;DR: Changes in concentration of buffer and base and the use of hydrochloric acid instead of phosphoric acid to the official final action method for TDF have been adopted and there was excellent agreement between the T DF determined independently and the TDF determined by summing the IDF and SDF.
Abstract: Description de modifications du protocole de la methode AOAC : concentration en tampon et en base et utilisation d'acide chlorhydrique a la place de l'acide phosphorique La methode est adoptee definitivement
Related Papers (5)
01 Nov 2011