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Journal ArticleDOI

Benefits of aged garlic extract in modulating toxicity biomarkers against p-dimethylaminoazobenzene and phenobarbital induced liver damage in Rattus norvegicus.

01 Sep 2020-Drug and Chemical Toxicology (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 43, Iss: 5, pp 454-467

TL;DR: Daily administration of aged garlic extract could favorably modulate the elevated levels of various toxicity biomarkers including serum triglyceride, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen except total cholesterol, indicating its protective potential against hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in the experimental rats.
Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L), a popular spice, has been used for decades in treating several medical conditions Although Allicin, an active ingredient of garlic has been extensively studied on carci
Topics: Allicin (59%), Allium sativum (54%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present review provides a comprehensive and collective update on the potential of 65 commonly used spices as well as their bioactive constituents as anticancer agents.
Abstract: Nature is a rich source of natural drug-like compounds with minimal side effects. Phytochemicals better known as "Natural Products" are found abundantly in a number of plants. Since time immemorial, spices have been widely used in Indian cuisine as flavoring and coloring agents. Most of these spices and condiments are derived from various biodiversity hotspots in India (which contribute 75% of global spice production) and form the crux of India's multidiverse and multicultural cuisine. Apart from their aroma, flavor and taste, these spices and condiments are known to possess several medicinal properties also. Most of these spices are mentioned in the Ayurveda, the indigenous system of medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties of several of these natural products are well documented in Ayurveda. These phytoconstituemts are known to act as functional immunoboosters, immunomodulators as well as anti-inflammatory agents. As anticancer agents, their mechanistic action involves cancer cell death via induction of apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. The present review provides a comprehensive and collective update on the potential of 66 commonly used spices as well as their bioactive constituents as anticancer agents. The review also provides an in-depth update of all major in vitro, in vivo, clinical and pharmacological studies done on these spices with special emphasis on the potential of these spices and their bioactive constituents as potential functional foods for prevention, treatment and management of cancer.

13 citations


01 Jan 2020-
TL;DR: The safety of AGE is suggested for achieving a better control in treatment of RA with the conventional drug MTX to diminish its hepatotoxicity.
Abstract: Aged garlic extract (AGE) exhibit anti-inflammatory effect in many diseases, and methotrexate (MTX) as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment drug shows adverse hepatotoxicity effect. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of AGE treatment alone or with MTX in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats to diminish the hepatotoxicity. The study used eight groups of rats as one control non treated group and seven treated groups with CIA, AGE (200 mg/kg/PO), MTX (1.5 mg/kg/2 days/subcutaneous), CIA-AGE, CIA-MTX, AGE-MTX and CIA-MTX-AGE. All treatments started from day 21 after the symptoms of arthritis appeared to day 50. The CIA-AGE and CIA-MTX-AGE groups showed significantly decreased serum liver function markers ASAT, ALAT and ALP enzymes activities. In line with the significantly increased antioxidants, total glutathione and SOD and CAT enzymes activities and decreased MDA levels as compared to CIA and CIA-MTX treated groups' values. In addition, the CIA-AGE and CIA-MTX-AGE groups recorded significant decrease in the measured cytokines (CRP and TNF) and interleukins (IL-17, IL-6, and IL-1) values as compared to the corresponding values in CIA and CIA-MTX groups. Results suggested the safety of AGE for achieving a better control in treatment of RA with the conventional drug MTX to diminish its hepatotoxicity.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2019-
TL;DR: The use of 5-FU loaded chitosan nanoparticles in combination with low-intensity ultrasound ameliorates the efficacy of 4-FU as anticancer therapy for HCC and results show tumor growth delay and more enhanced correction in hepatic architecture was obtained by a combination of US and 5-fu loaded Cs NPs therapy.
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. The most important risk factor for the development of HCC is cirrhosis regardless of etiology. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of cancer. Drug resistance remains a significant limitation to the clinical use of 5-FU. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU loaded chitosan nanoparticles in experimentally induced HCC. To achieve our purpose, one hundred and five male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into two major groups: Group A: comprised 25 mice served as normal control, Group B: comprised 80 mice received a daily oral dose of 0.06% DAB (165 mg/kg body.wt.) for 30 days after which the water was replaced with 0.05% aqueous solution of Phenobarbital (PB). Five chosen mice randomly from groups A and B at the time intervals 15, 30, 45 and 60 days were sacrificed to follow up with the development of HCC by biochemical and histopathological examination. Animals of group B were divided into 3 groups Group I: included 20 mice served as an untreated group, group II: included 20 mice injected intraperitoneally with 5-FU only (40mg/kg body.wt) every 2 days for 16 days, group III: included 20 mice injected intraperitoneally with 5-FU Cs NPs. Each group was further divided into two subgroups 10 mice each, one subgroup treated with ultrasonic waves; meanwhile the other subgroup without ultrasonic waves exposure. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrified, serum ALT, hepatic ALT, and hepatic MDA were estimated; HCC was histopathologically monitored in all studied groups. There was 276.5%, 145.7%and 438.5% increase in serum ALT, hepatic ALT and hepatic MDA levels respectively comparing to the corresponding control. Liver tumors that ultimately became neoplastic were produced after 45 days. US exposure triggered a significant decline in serum and hepatic ALT activity (P = 0.001) and in hepatic MDA (P = 0.009) within 5-FU loaded Cs NPs group. Moreover, tumor growth delay and more enhanced correction in hepatic architecture was obtained by a combination of US and 5-FU loaded Cs NPs therapy. Based on these results, we can conclude that the use of 5-FU loaded chitosan nanoparticles in combination with low-intensity ultrasound ameliorates the efficacy of 5-FU as anticancer therapy for HCC.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Jan 2021-Powder Technology
Abstract: Garlic extract (GE) was encapsulated into the matrices of two types of multilayer walls composed of whey protein isolate (WPI)/chitosan (CH)/polydextrose (POL) and gum Arabic (GA)/CH/POL. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the compounds of GE were encapsulated within the matrices of the wall materials by physical interactions. The water adsorption isotherms of the powders were determined at 30, 40 and 50 °C. The GAB model was the most suitable to fit the adsorption data. The adsorption sorption of the powders was enthalpy-controlled and the thermodynamic functions demonstrated that the WPI/CH/POL powders had hydrophilic surface with higher number of polar sites available to binding with water molecules than GA/CH/POL powders. The experimental data of water and nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to determine the surface areas and pore sizes of the powders. All the results can be used to improve the processing, handling, and storage conditions of the powders.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dongsheng Sun1, Chen Sun1, Gongcai Qiu1, Lei Yao1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Treatment with anti-neoplastic agents, including cyclophosphamide (CP), is associated with several adverse reactions. Here, we distinguished the potential protective effect of allicin against CP-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. To assess the effect of allicin, four experimental groups were used, with 7 rats per group, including control, allicin (10 mg/kg), CP (200 mg/kg), and allicin + CP-treated groups. All groups were treated for 10 days. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical, molecular, and histological analyses. Treatment with CP led to deformations in the liver tissue that were associated with higher liver function markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase). Additionally, a disturbance in the redox balance was observed after CP exposure, as indicated by increased levels of oxidants, including malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and the decreased levels of endogenous antioxidants, including glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. At the molecular level, CP treatment resulted in reduced expression of the Nrf2/ARE pathway and other genes related to this pathway, including NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. CP also led to a hyper-inflammatory response in hepatic tissue, with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interlukin-1beta, and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase 2. CP also enhanced the immunoreactivity of the profibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta, in liver tissue. Upregulation of caspase 3 and Bcl-2-associated X protein and downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 were also observed in response to CP treatment. Treatment with allicin reversed the molecular, biochemical, and histological changes that occurred with CP exposure. These results suggest that allicin can be used in combination with CP to avoid hepatotoxicity.

2 citations


References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.
Abstract: Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins, a number of modified analytical procedures utilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum, in antigen-antibody precipitates, and in insulin. Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sensitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard to effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of reactants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering substances. Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation with acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 gamma of protein.

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Britton Chance1, A.C. Maehly1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Two methods are described for the catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide are: ultraviolet spectrophotometry and permanganate titration and indirect measurements of the decrease of light absorption caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide byCatalase.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the assay of catalases and peroxidases are: (1) catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide; (2) method for crude cell extracts; (3) direct spectrophotometric assay of catalase and peroxidase in cells and tissues; and (4) peroxidase assay by spectrophotometric measurements of the disappearance of hydrogen donor or the appearance of their colored oxidation products. Two methods are described for the catalase assay by disappearance of peroxide are: ultraviolet spectrophotometry and permanganate titration. Ultraviolet spectrophotometryis a method devised, on the basis of the absorption curves for peroxide solutions, for determining the activity of catalase by direct measurements of the decrease of light absorption in the region 230 to 250 mμ caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. In the case of method for crude cell extracts, oxygen evolution caused by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is measured with the conventional manometric technique. Peroxidase assay by spectrophotometric measurements of the disappearance of hydrogen donor or the appearance of their colored oxidation products includes the guaiacol test and the pyrogallol test.

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01 Apr 1962-Clinical Chemistry
TL;DR: Combinations of reagents are described for the catalyzed indophenol reaction for the determination of ammonia, which produces a stable blue color, and the procedure is adapted to thedetermination of urea after hydrolysis with urease.
Abstract: Combinations of reagents are described for the catalyzed indophenol reaction for the determination of ammonia, which produces a stable blue color. The procedure is adapted to the determination of urea after hydrolysis with urease.

3,266 citations


"Benefits of aged garlic extract in ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Serum Urea and BUN levels were determined by the modified Berthelot method (Chaney and Marbach 1962)....

    [...]

  • ...…was measured at 550 nm and the total cholesterol levels were calculated using the formula below: Total Cholesterol concentration (mg/dl)¼ (Absorbance of test divided by Absorbance of Standard) 200 Serum Urea and BUN levels were determined by the modified Berthelot method (Chaney and Marbach 1962)....

    [...]


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1,961 citations


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