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Journal ArticleDOI

Bioactive constituents of the genus Aloe and their potential therapeutic and pharmacological applications: A review

05 Nov 2020-journal of applied pharmaceutical science (Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science)-

TL;DR: This review presents an overview of the bioactive components of the Aloe genus with emphasis on their anti-diabetic potential and other pharmacological benefits, and the potential applications and constraints have been discussed.
Abstract: The therapeutic and pharmacological properties of plant bioactive constituents still continue to be the subject of many researches. Species of the Aloe genus have a history in folklore medicine and they have gained more attention over the years due to their various medicinal properties. Phytochemical studies have revealed that the Aloe species contain a number of constituents, such as polyphenols, phytosterols, polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, chromones, and mineral elements. A comprehensive evidence-based review on the different constituents of Aloe species is needed in order to understand the benefits imparted by them. This review presents an overview of the bioactive components of the Aloe genus with emphasis on their anti-diabetic potential and other pharmacological benefits. This information will be beneficial for the advancement of new strategies of Aloe formulations with therapeutic and economical value in the near future. Furthermore, the potential applications and constraints have also been discussed so as to provide a wider prospect for research in this field for the benefit of the society.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance Aloe barbadensis Miller, commonly known as Aloe vera has been used since time immemorial for treatment of various diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, wound healing etc. Aim Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved is a key to identify different markers for early diagnosis of the disease. The proteomic approach offers a plethora of opportunities to identify markers and targets involved in pathogenesis of diabetes. The present study was undertaken to understand the mechanism of action of Aloe vera and its two constituents (Carbohydrates and Polypeptides) in the alleviation of diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through a proteomics approach. Methods Different groups of rats were fed with Aloe vera extract, carbohydrate fraction and peptide/polypeptide fraction for three weeks. The diabetic rats fed with Aloe vera and its two fractions restored the glucose and insulin levels to normal. The plasma of the rats was depleted with IgG and albumin and proteomic analysis was carried out. Apolipoproteins (dyslipidemia), complement factors (inflammatory pathways), zonulin (intestinal permeability), anti-oxidant related proteins were selected in this study as these are involved in the progression of diabetes. Results It was observed that Aloe vera extract is involved in the alleviation of diabetes through these pathways while the carbohydrate fraction alleviates diabetes through an anti-oxidant mechanism and glucose uptake while the polypeptide fraction alleviates diabetes through the restoration of intestinal permeability by reduced zonulin levels. Conclusion The constituents of Aloe vera works different pathways involved in diabetes and the synergistic effect of these constituents make Aloe vera extract a prospective candidate, which can alleviate diabetes through regulation of the pathways involved in the progression of diabetes.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Aloe is a genus of flowering succulent plants (with above 500 species) found in the eastern Indian Ocean Islands, Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and African continent. In recent years, Aloe genus have received much attention for their therapeutic benefits. Aloe genus contains several phytoconstituents. For instance, carotenoids, anthraquinone, fatty acids, phenolic acids, and sterols were isolated from Aloe aculeata, Aloe ferox, Aloe saponaria, Aloe legnica and Aloe vera. Similarly, polyphenols, flavonoids, and flavonols were reported in Aloe marlothii and Aloe melanacantha. All these phytochemicals play a vital role in nanoparticle (NP) fabrication. The functional group present in them act as a reducing agent which convert metal ions into metal or metal-oxide NPs. NPs obtained from different Aloe plants have shown various biological and other applications. For example, silver NPs fabricated from Aloe vera extract exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant, wound healing, and catalytic activities. Selenium NPs synthesized from Aloe vera showed antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Titanium dioxide NPs obtained from Aloe barbadensis and Aloe vera are also examined for their antibiofilm potential and photocatalytic activities, respectively. Overall, this review aims to provide an updated information on Aloe-based NPs fabrication (both metal and metal-oxide), characterization and their application in some cutting-edge areas.

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Dec 2021-Heliyon
Abstract: Background Diabetic wounds are characterized by delayed healing and impaired angiogenesis. Aloe vera and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are reported to facilitate wound healing, and the former also has hypoglycemic property. Matrix metalloproteinases are enzymes that play a role in diabetic wound pathogenesis. Objective To investigate whether oral Aloe vera can enhance the efficacy of HUVEC transplantation and inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in wound healing of diabetic mice. Materials and Methods BALB/c nude mice were randomly assigned into five groups: normal control group, diabetic group (DM), DM transplanted with HUVECs, DM treated with oral Aloe vera, and DM treated with combined HUVECs and oral Aloe vera. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Bilateral full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds were created. At days 7 and 14 post-wounding, the following parameters were determined: blood glucose, wound area, wound perfusion, capillary vascularity, re-epithelialization rate and tissue VEGF levels. Tissue expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were compared between the DM mice and those treated with oral Aloe vera. Results Over days 7 and 14, Aloe vera exerted glucose-lowering effect in diabetic mice. Higher wound closure rate, blood flow and capillary vascularity, and lower MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were observed at both time points in DM treated with Aloe vera group compared with DM group (P Conclusion It is suggested that oral Aloe vera enhances the efficacy of HUVEC transplantation on diabetic wound angiogenesis, partly through improving glycemic control. Oral Aloe vera also promotes diabetic wound healing via inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Aloe vera has been used since ancient times for cosmetics and medicinal uses. In the present study, sixty genotypes were collected from different agro-climatic zones to evaluate genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. A total of ten primer combinations were used, which generated a total of 16,578 fragments from 419 loci with an average of 41.9 loci per primer. The resolving power of the primers ranged from 24.86 to 87.20 with an average of 55.23 and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.92 to 0.98 with an average of 0.95. Clustering pattern and principal coordinate analysis revealed a considerable genetic variability among the selected genotypes. The population genetic analysis was carried out in terms of some essential genetic diversity parameters viz., Na, Ne, H, I, NPL, PPL, Hs, Ht, Nm, and Gst, which indicated a high degree of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 7.46% genetic variation among the groups and 91.46% among genotypes. The degree of freedom and variance component observed were 2 and 3.496, respectively, among the groups and 57 and 42.858, among the genotypes. Population structure analysis assumes three populations that are consistent with an initial grouping of the genotypes based on their geographical regions. Furthermore, it is concluded that the AFLP markers were found an ideal tool for the genetic diversity in Aloe vera because it is a highly reproducible, highly polymorphic, high throughput, and cost-effective method. Observed results can be used for proper maintenance, validation, and effective utilization of Aloe vera genotypes.

Journal ArticleDOI
27 May 2021-Molecules
Abstract: The aim of the study is to evaluate the composition of lyophilisates obtained from Aloe arborescens leaf gel at the age of one to four years The leaves were obtained from controlled crops, which allowed to exclude environmental factors as variables It was confirmed that the lyophilisates obtained from different years of Aloe arborescens leaf gel varied in chromatographic analyses in terms of aloin A and aloenin A content (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection HPLC-DAD, high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection HPLC-MS/MS) Similarly, while testing the phenolic acids and the sum of polyphenols content, differences in their levels in leaf gel lyophilisates from plants of individual years were observed (spectrophotometric method UV-VIS) The lyophilisate composition analysis showed that the one-year-old leaves were characterized by the highest content of aloin A and aloenin A While the content of polyphenols, including phenolic acids, was higher in the leaves of older plants The antioxidant potential of the tested lyophilisates was assessed simultaneously Regardless of the research model used (CUPRAC, DPPH, ABTS), an antioxidant effect was noted for Aloe arborescens leaves

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases.
Abstract: Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.

2,694 citations


"Bioactive constituents of the genus..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe polyphenols The polyphenols are known to exert their effect through their antioxidant properties (Pandey and Rizvi, 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review describes and discusses several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success and identifies and discusses advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drugDevelopment, specifically those used in traditional medicine.
Abstract: In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine.

1,821 citations


"Bioactive constituents of the genus..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The natural products have been used to isolate active constituents and some of these active leads have also been taken up for clinical trials (David et al., 2015; Fabricant and Farnsworth, 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
T. Reynolds1, A.-C. Dweck2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas and a common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents.
Abstract: Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas. Treatment of inflammation is still the key effect for most types of healing but it is now realized that this is a complex process and that many of its constituent processes may be addressed in different ways by different gel components. A common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents. There have also been, however, persistent reports of active glycoprotein fractions from both Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. There are also cautionary investigations warning of possible allergic effects on some patients. Reports also describe antidiabetic, anticancer and antibiotic activities, so we may expect to see a widening use of aloe gel. Several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for use as itself or in formulations and there may be moves towards isolating and eventually providing verified active ingredients in dosable quantities

756 citations


"Bioactive constituents of the genus..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Some of the anthraquinones present in the lead part are Aloin, Aloe emodin, aloesaponarin, chrysophanol, and isoxanthorin (Reynolds and Dweck, 1999)....

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  • ...Mostly, the gel portion of the plant is used for the treatment of diseases and disorders (Reynolds and Dweck, 1999)....

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  • ...They are also reported to have a role in angiogenesis and hence are used in would healing process (Awad et al., 2007; Reynolds and Dweck, 1999)....

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  • ...The biological activities of several Aloe species have been reviewed by Reynolds and Dweck (1999) and their relationship between the components and biological effects have been reported by Choi and Chung (2003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Josias H. Hamman1Institutions (1)
08 Aug 2008-Molecules
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to further highlight recently discovered effects and applications of the leaf gel of A. vera to enhance the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of co-administered compounds as well as enhancement of skin permeation.
Abstract: Many of the health benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. These biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic or antidiabetic effects antiinflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory and gastroprotective properties. While the known biological activities of A. vera will be briefly discussed, it is the aim of this review to further highlight recently discovered effects and applications of the leaf gel. These effects include the potential of whole leaf or inner fillet gel liquid preparations of A. vera to enhance the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of co-administered compounds as well as enhancement of skin permeation. In addition, important pharmaceutical applications such as the use of the dried A. vera gel powder as an excipient in sustained release pharmaceutical dosage forms will be outlined.

755 citations


"Bioactive constituents of the genus..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The dry weight solid material consists of a range of compounds, including water-soluble and fatsoluble vitamins, minerals, enzymes, mono (Femenia et al., 1999) and polysaccharides, lignin, proteins, polypeptides, phenolic compounds, and organic acids (Boudreau and Beland, 2006; Hamman, 2008)....

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  • ...The gel of A. vera consists of around 200 active constituents such as saccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, glycoproteins, minerals, vitamins, anthraquinones, lipids, amino acids, and enzymes (Hamman, 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Yoshito Ikada1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A brief overview on the current tissue engineering is given, covering the fundamentals and applications, and some critical problems to be resolved for the advances of tissue engineering are addressed from the engineering point of view.
Abstract: Almost 30 years have passed since a term ‘tissue engineering’ was created to represent a new concept that focuses on regeneration of neotissues from cells with the support of biomaterials and growth factors. This interdisciplinary engineering has attracted much attention as a new therapeutic means that may overcome the drawbacks involved in the current artificial organs and organ transplantation that have been also aiming at replacing lost or severely damaged tissues or organs. However, the tissues regenerated by this tissue engineering and widely applied to patients are still very limited, including skin, bone, cartilage, capillary and periodontal tissues. What are the reasons for such slow advances in clinical applications of tissue engineering? This article gives the brief overview on the current tissue engineering, covering the fundamentals and applications. The fundamentals of tissue engineering involve the cell sources, scaffolds for cell expansion and differentiation and carriers for growth factors. Animal and human trials are the major part of the applications. Based on these results, some critical problems to be resolved for the advances of tissue engineering are addressed from the engineering point of view, emphasizing the close collaboration between medical doctors and biomaterials scientists.

616 citations


"Bioactive constituents of the genus..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Attention has also been focused on tissue engineering, wherein growth factors and biomaterials have been employed for regeneration (Ikada, 2006)....

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