Bioactive phenolics from mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.)
01 Jan 2018-Industrial Crops and Products (Elsevier)-Vol. 111, pp 400-406
TL;DR: In this paper, a phytochemical study on the extract of mango leaves resulted in the isolation and identification of 5 benzophenones and 17 flavonoids, including 4 new benzophenone glycosides, elucidated as 4′,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-(2)
Abstract: Mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.) are a kind of crop waste and the present work is focusing on its bioactive constituents. Phytochemical study on the extract of mango leaves resulted in the isolation and identification of 5 benzophenones and 17 flavonoids. Among them, there were 4 new benzophenone glycosides, elucidated as 4′,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-(2″),3-C-(1″)-1″-desoxy-β-fructopyranoside, 4,4′,6-trihydroxybenzophenone-2-O-(2″),3-C-(1″)-1″-desoxy-β-fructopyranoside, 4,4′,6-trihydroxybenzophenone-2-O-(2″),3-C-(1″)-1″-desoxy-β-fructofuranoside, and 2,4′,6-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-3-C-(2-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl)-α- d -galactoside, together with eighteen known compounds. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated. The results displayed that some phenolics showed significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The study provided a phytochemical evidence for further development and utilization of mango leaves in health products.
TL;DR: The extensive lethal effect of AgNPs against clinically important pathogens demonstrated that the mango flower mediated AgNPS could be applied as potential antibacterial agent to control the bacterial population in the respective industries.
Abstract: The present study focused on the evaluation of antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using mango flower extract. The morphology of the synthesized AgNPs was observed under transmission electron microscopy and the particles have shown spherical shape in the range of 10–20 nm. X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the AgNPs. The atomic percentage of the Ag element in the nanoparticles was about 7.58% which is greater than the other elements present in the sample. The AgNPs showed extensive lethal effect on both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus sp.) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Rahnella sp.) bacteria. The extensive lethal effect of AgNPs against clinically important pathogens demonstrated that the mango flower mediated AgNPs could be applied as potential antibacterial agent to control the bacterial population in the respective industries.
Indian Council of Agricultural Research1, Indian Agricultural Research Institute2, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute3, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering4, Panjab University, Chandigarh5, Gyanvihar University6, Clemson University7, Polish Academy of Sciences8, University of Kiel9
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the nutritional and phytochemical profile of mango leaves has been presented, where various bio-activities of the ML extracts are also critically discussed and used as a potential ingredient for the development of functional foods and pharmaceutical drugs.
Abstract: Mangifera indica L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae and is an important fruit from South and Southeast Asia. India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and the Philippines are among the top mango producer countries. Leaves of the mango plant have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a plethora of phytochemicals such as mangiferin, followed by phenolic acids, benzophenones, and other antioxidants such as flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The extracts from mango leaves (MLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-obesity, lipid-lowering, hepato-protection, and anti-diarrheal. In the present review, we have elaborated on the nutritional and phytochemical profile of the MLs. Further, various bioactivities of the ML extracts are also critically discussed. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of the MLs, they can be used as a potential ingredient for the development of functional foods and pharmaceutical drugs. However, more detailed clinical trials still needed to be conducted for establishing the actual efficacy of the ML extracts.
TL;DR: Several new lead compounds were developed that could act as antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors and played important roles in the anti-browning activity during food processing.
Abstract: Five new flavonoids (1-5), along with 25 known compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Potentilla anserina L. and their structures were identified using spectroscopic and chemical evidence. The extract, all fractions, and all isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, and their structure-activity relationship was interpreted. The biflavanols and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate (14) exhibited significant antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. In this study, anti-tyrosinase activity and its mechanism of active compounds (potenserin C (4), potenserin D (5), and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate (14)) were explored by a combination of computational simulations and kinetic studies. Kinetic studies indicated that potenserin C (4) and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate (14) inhibited tyrosinase in a competitive manner, whereas potenserin D (5) acted in a reversible noncompetitive manner. The molecular docking result indicated that the substitution of the glucose moiety with galloyl and the presence of 3', 4', 5'-OH in flavonoid aglycones played a crucial role for the tyrosinase inhibiting effect. Moreover, the presence of biflavanols increased the activity against tyrosinase because of strong hydrogen binding, π-alkyl binding, and electrostatic interaction. Thus, the presented experiments developed several new lead compounds that could act as antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Furthermore, biflavanols and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate played important roles in the anti-browning activity during food processing.
TL;DR: It is suggested that Chinese olive could be served as a healthy product for neuroinflammatory related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, as well as remarkable antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.
Abstract: Chinese olive is served as a famous fruit and traditional herb in China. In this study, the anti-neuroinflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals of Chinese olive fruits were investigated. Three new phenylpropanoids (2, 6, 19), together with sixteen known congeners, have been isolated and identified. A variety of bioactivities related to the traditional healthy benefits of Chinese olive, including anti-neuroinflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic, have been evaluated for the identified compounds. The phenylpropanoids could significantly inhibit the production of nitric oxide induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in microglia cells (BV-2). Compounds 2, 6, and 19 could dose-dependently reduce the expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediator iNOS and COX-2 expressions induced by LPS in BV-2 cells. Meanwhile, some phenylpropanoids showed remarkable antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. This study suggested that Chinese olive could be served as a healthy product for neuroinflammatory related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
TL;DR: The present results suggest that A. arguta leaves are a promising by-product when extracted by this innovative technology, being a valuable source of bioactive compounds for different industries, particularly food industry.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta L.) leaves, a crop waste, as a source of bioactive compounds with potential application in different industries, such as food industry. For this study, a new, green and sustainable extraction technique was employed: Multi-Frequency Multimode Modulated Technology. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) as well as the antioxidant activity (through DPPH and FRAP assays) and the scavenging capacity against reactive species (O2·-, H2O2, NO·, ROO·, HOCl and ONOO·) were evaluated. The cell viability effects were assessed on keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the phytochemical profile was stablished by HPLC-DAD-EIS-MS. The extract displayed a high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 270.17 ± 69.94 μg/mL through scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and 3219.55 ± 34.29 μmol Fe2+/g dm in the FRAP assay). The TPC was higher than the one reported for fruit. On the contrary, the TFC is lower. Concerning the scavenging capacity against reactive species, the extract was more effective against O2·- and H2O2. Regarding the cell viability assays, the extract did not affect the cell viability on HaCaT and HFF cells, in concentrations below 500 μg/mL and 125 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC-DAD-EIS-MS-based phytochemical profile reported the presence of chlorogenic acid and glycosylated quercetin as well as kaempferol derivatives. Overall, the present results suggest that A. arguta leaves are a promising by-product when extracted by this innovative technology, being a valuable source of bioactive compounds for different industries, particularly food industry.
TL;DR: Mangiferin, detected at high concentrations in young leaves, in bark, and in old leaves (Itamaraka = 94 g/kg), shows an exceptionally strong antioxidant capacity.
Abstract: The contents of secondary plant substances in solvent extracts of various byproducts (barks, kernels, peels, and old and young leaves) in a range of Brazilian mango cultivars were identified and quantitated. The results show that the profiles of secondary plant substances such as xanthone C-glycosides, gallotannins, and benzophenones in different byproducts vary greatly but are fairly consistent across cultivars. The free radical scavenging activity of the solvent extracts was evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay and revealed dose-dependent antioxidant capacity in all extracts. Four (mangiferin, penta-O-galloyl-glucoside gallic acid, and methyl gallate) of the major phenolic compounds detected were also evaluated in additional in vitro bioassay systems such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric reducing ability of plasma. Mangiferin in particular, detected at high concentrations in young leaves (Coite ...
TL;DR: In this paper, the profile of flavonol-O -glycosides and xanthone-C -Glycosides was characterized in pulps from Haden, Tommy Atkins, Palmer, and Uba mango varieties by LC-ESI-MS analysis.
Abstract: Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of four mango varieties cultivated in Brazil were analyzed. The profile of flavonol- O -glycosides and xanthone- C -glycosides was characterized in pulps from Haden, Tommy Atkins, Palmer, and Uba cultivars and in the agro-industrial residues from Uba variety by LC–ESI–MS analysis. The first three varieties were collected from conventional production, whereas Uba was obtained from organic production. The total phenolic content of the peels and seed kernel extracts was analyzed utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The aqueous-methanolic extracts of pulp, peel and seed kernels were analyzed for antioxidant activity (AA) by free radical-scavenging and reducing power. A total of 12 flavonoids and xanthones were identified in the pulps, peels and seed kernels, with larger amounts of these compounds being present in the organically grown Uba variety. The Uba mango pulp presented higher AA and the peel and seed kernel extracts showed higher AA than did a commercial standard.
TL;DR: The profile of flavonol glycosides of the peels proved to be highly characteristic and may therefore serve as a tool for authenticity control of mango puree concentrate, which is often produced from unpeeled fruits and represents an important intermediate for the production of mango nectars.
Abstract: With respect to their browning potential and in consideration of a combined recovery of pectin and phenolic compounds, peels of 14 cultivars and the flesh of nine cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were analyzed for their contents of flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)−diode array detection−electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). While total amounts of up to 4860 mg/kg dry matter demonstrated the peels to be a rich source of phenolic compounds, only traces could be detected in the flesh. The profile of flavonol glycosides of the peels proved to be highly characteristic and may therefore serve as a tool for authenticity control of mango puree concentrate, which is often produced from unpeeled fruits and represents an important intermediate for the production of mango nectars. Two compounds were isolated by preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of ESI-MS as well as NMR spectroscopy, establishing the two...
TL;DR: Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.
Abstract: The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.
TL;DR: Polyphenolics were extracted from peels, pulp and kernels of mango fruits and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and proved to be a rich source of gallotannins.
Abstract: Polyphenolics were extracted from peels, pulp and kernels of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins') and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the peel 18 gallotannins and five benzophenone derivatives were detected which were tentatively identified as galloylated maclurin and iriflophenone glucosides. Twenty-one and eight gallotannins were found in the kernels and pulp, respectively, whereas no evidence for the presence of benzophenone derivatives was obtained. Gallotannins quantified by the rhodanine assay amounted to 1.4 mg/g dm in the peels (expressed as gallic acid), while only small amounts (0.2 mg/g dm) were found in the pulp. In contrast, mango kernels contained 15.5 mg/g dm and thus proved to be a rich source of gallotannins.