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Journal ArticleDOI

Biocatalytic production of ricinoleic acid from castor oil: augmentation by ionic liquid

02 Jul 2020-Chemical Engineering Communications (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 207, Iss: 7, pp 972-984
TL;DR: In this article, castor oil hydrolysis catalyzed by porcine pancreas lipase, organic solvent, and ionic liquid were applied to augment production of ricinoleic acid.
Abstract: In present study involving castor oil hydrolysis catalyzed by porcine pancreas lipase, organic solvent, and ionic liquid were applied to augment production of ricinoleic acid. Toluene was the best ...
Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors reviewed some reaction stages to the preparation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil, and the most effective technique was the hydrolysis through the use of the enzyme lipozyme TL IM.
Abstract: Castor oil is a vegetable product extracted from Ricinus communis L (castor seed), which is primarily considered an important commercial value for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, coatings, etc. It is rich in hydroxylated fatty acids (ricinoleic acid, 89-92%) and is widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, oleochemical, and agricultural industries. This oil has also been confirmed as a bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, and antiherpetic agents, due to the ricinoleic acid having functional groups, such as -COOH, -OH, and -C=C-. Furthermore, it is converted into various acid derivative compounds with several applications. Therefore, this article reviewed some reaction stages to the preparation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil. Several methods or reaction pathways were employed in the preparation procedure, such as the Twitchell and Colgate-Emery processes, as well as the alkaline catalyzed, transesterification with methyl ricinoleic, and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis, respectively. Although each of these preparation methods has advantages and disadvantages, the most effective technique was the hydrolysis through the use of the enzyme lipozyme TL IM. Besides being a green method, the conversion rate in the hydrolysis process was 96.2 ± 1.5.

3 citations

References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations


"Biocatalytic production of ricinole..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In all other situations, the optimum remains outside that space and as a next step, application of steepest ascent method is necessary (Montgomery, 2001; Tang et al., 2004)....

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  • ...In this regard, response surface methodology (RSM) is a better technique (Montgomery, 2001)....

    [...]

  • ...The step for each variable (xi) should be proportional to its regression coefficient (ci) in Equation (5) (Montgomery, 2001; Chen et al., 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The buffers described in this section are suitable for use either in enzymatic or histochemical studies, and the titration curves of the majority of the buffers recommended have been redetermined by the writer.
Abstract: The methods of preparation described are not necessarily identical with those of the original authors. The titration curves of the majority of the buffers recommended have been redetermined by the writer. The buffers are arranged in the order of ascending pH range. For more complete data on phosphate and acetate buffers over a wide range of concentrations, see Vol. I [10].*

1,163 citations


"Biocatalytic production of ricinole..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Buffer solutions with various pH (6, 8, and 10) were prepared according to procedure described by Gomori (1955)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Lipases can catalyze several other processes in organic media including esterification, aminolysis, acyl exchange, thiotransesterification, and oximolysis; some of these reactions proceed to an appreciable extent only in nonaqueous solvents.
Abstract: Three different lipases (porcine pancreatic, yeast, and mold) can vigorously act as catalysts in a number of nearly anhydrous organic solvents Various transesterification reactions catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase in hexane obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics The dependence of the catalytic activity of the enzyme in organic media on the pH of the aqueous solution from which it was recovered is bell-shaped, with the maximum coinciding with the pH optimum of the enzymatic activity in water The catalytic power exhibited by the lipases in organic solvents is comparable to that displayed in water In addition to transesterification, lipases can catalyze several other processes in organic media including esterification, aminolysis, acyl exchange, thiotransesterification, and oximolysis; some of these reactions proceed to an appreciable extent only in nonaqueous solvents

1,112 citations


"Biocatalytic production of ricinole..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Enzyme catalyzed reactions, when carried out in organic solvents, have various advantages like high solubility of most of the substrates (mostly organic compounds); greater ease of product recovery from organic solvents as compared to water; and the incapability of organic media to dissolve enzymes (Zaks and Klibanov, 1985)....

    [...]

  • ...…when carried out in organic solvents, have various advantages like high solubility of most of the substrates (mostly organic compounds); greater ease of product recovery from organic solvents as compared to water; and the incapability of organic media to dissolve enzymes (Zaks and Klibanov, 1985)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Solvatochromic studies and partition coefficient measurements suggest that ionic liquids are more polar and hydrophilic than organic solvents such as hexane, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran.
Abstract: Lipase activity and stability was investigated in dialkylimidazolium and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with a variety of anions including hexafluorophosphate, acetate, nitrate, methanesulfonate, trifluoroacetate, and trifluoromethylsulfonate. The initial rate of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of methyl methacrylate in these ionic liquids and several organic solvents was examined as well as the polytransesterification of divinyl adipate and 1,4-butanediol. Free lipase (Candida rugosa) catalyzed the transesterification of methyl methacrylate in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate at a rate 1.5 times greater than in hexane. However, no detectable activity was observed in all the “hydrophilic” ionic liquids studied. Methods of enzyme stabilization including adsorption, PEG-modification, and immobilization in polyurethane foam were ineffective in improving enzymatic activity in the hydrophilic ionic liquids. Polytransesterifications performed in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosp...

539 citations


"Biocatalytic production of ricinole..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Kaar et al. (2003) observed that anions of ionic liquids mainly had effect on lipase activity....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI

206 citations


"Biocatalytic production of ricinole..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The acid value was determined as: AV ¼ 56:1 N V M (1) where, “AV” is acid value, “N” is concentration of KOH, “V” is volume of KOH needed to titrate the sample solution (ml), “M” is amount of sample (g) (Paquot and Hautfenne, 1987)....

    [...]

  • ...where, “AV” is acid value, “N” is concentration of KOH, “V” is volume of KOH needed to titrate the sample solution (ml), “M” is amount of sample (g) (Paquot and Hautfenne, 1987)....

    [...]