scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010

01 Nov 2012-Progress in Polymer Science (Pergamon)-Vol. 37, Iss: 11, pp 1552-1596

AbstractDue to environment and sustainability issues, this century has witnessed remarkable achievements in green technology in the field of materials science through the development of biocomposites. The development of high-performance materials made from natural resources is increasing worldwide. The greatest challenge in working with natural fiber reinforced plastic composites is their large variation in properties and characteristics. A biocomposite's properties are influenced by a number of variables, including the fiber type, environmental conditions (where the plant fibers are sourced), processing methods, and any modification of the fiber. It is also known that recently there has been a surge of interest in the industrial applications of composites containing biofibers reinforced with biopolymers. Biopolymers have seen a tremendous increase in use as a matrix for biofiber reinforced composites. A comprehensive review of literature (from 2000 to 2010) on the mostly readily utilized natural fibers and biopolymers is presented in this paper. The overall characteristics of reinforcing fibers used in biocomposites, including source, type, structure, composition, as well as mechanical properties, will be reviewed. Moreover, the modification methods; physical (corona and plasma treatment) and chemical (silane, alkaline, acetylation, maleated coupling, and enzyme treatment) will be discussed. The most popular matrices in biofiber reinforced composites based on petrochemical and renewable resources will also be addressed. The wide variety of biocomposite processing techniques as well as the factors (moisture content, fiber type and content, coupling agents and their influence on composites properties) affecting these processes will be discussed. Prior to the processing of biocomposites, semi-finished product manufacturing is also vital, which will be illustrated. Processing technologies for biofiber reinforced composites will be discussed based on thermoplastic matrices (compression molding, extrusion, injection molding, LFT-D-method, and thermoforming), and thermosets (resin transfer molding, sheet molding compound). Other implemented processes, i.e., thermoset compression molding and pultrusion and their influence on mechanical performance (tensile, flexural and impact properties) will also be evaluated. Finally, the review will conclude with recent developments and future trends of biocomposites as well as key issues that need to be addressed and resolved.

Topics: Biocomposite (63%), Transfer molding (56%), Compression molding (54%), Natural fiber (52%), Thermoforming (51%)

...read more

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Rising environmental concerns and depletion of petro-chemical resources has resulted in an increased interest in biorenewable polymer-based environmentally friendly materials. Among biorenewable polymers, lignin is the second most abundant and fascinating natural polymer next to cellulose. Lignin is one of the three major components found in the cell walls of natural lignocellulosic materials. Lignin is widely available as a major byproduct of a number of industries involved in retrieving the polysaccharide components of plants for industrial applications, such as in paper making, ethanol production from biomass, etc. The impressive properties of lignin, such as its high abundance, low weight, environmentally friendliness and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and biodegradable nature, along with its CO2 neutrality and reinforcing capability, make it an ideal candidate for the development of novel polymer composite materials. Considerable efforts are now being made to effectively utilize waste lignin as one ...

895 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Natural fibers are getting attention from researchers and academician to utilize in polymer composites due to their ecofriendly nature and sustainability. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive review of the foremost appropriate as well as widely used natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs) and their applications. In addition, it presents summary of various surface treatments applied to natural fibers and their effect on NFPCs properties. The properties of NFPCs vary with fiber type and fiber source as well as fiber structure. The effects of various chemical treatments on the mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibers reinforcements thermosetting and thermoplastics composites were studied. A number of drawbacks of NFPCs like higher water absorption, inferior fire resistance, and lower mechanical properties limited its applications. Impacts of chemical treatment on the water absorption, tribology, viscoelastic behavior, relaxation behavior, energy absorption flames retardancy, and biodegradability properties of NFPCs were also highlighted. The applications of NFPCs in automobile and construction industry and other applications are demonstrated. It concluded that chemical treatment of the natural fiber improved adhesion between the fiber surface and the polymer matrix which ultimately enhanced physicomechanical and thermochemical properties of the NFPCs.

659 citations


Cites background from "Biocomposites reinforced with natur..."

  • ...This structure gives to thermoset polymer good properties such as high flexibility for tailoring desired ultimate properties, great strength, and modulus [3, 4]....

    [...]

  • ...At 65% humidity at 21C, the equilibrium moisture content of some natural fiber can be observed in Table 4 [4]....

    [...]

  • ...The plants, which produce cellulose fibers can be classified into bast fibers (jute, flax, ramie, hemp, and kenaf), seed fibers (cotton, coir, and kapok), leaf fibers (sisal, pineapple, and abaca), grass and reed fibers (rice, corn, and wheat), and core fibers (hemp, kenaf, and jute) as well as all other kinds (wood and roots) [4]....

    [...]

  • ...Table 1: Natural fibers in the world and their world production [4]....

    [...]

  • ...Table 2: Chemical composition of some common natural fibers [4]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prime aim of this review article is to demonstrate the recent development and emerging applications of natural cellulose fibers and their polymer materials.
Abstract: Recently natural cellulose fibers from different biorenewable resources have attracted the considerable attraction of research community all around the globe owing to their unique intrinsic properties such as biodegradability, easy availability, environmental friendliness, flexibility, easy processing and impressive physico-mechanical properties. Natural cellulose fibers based materials are finding their applications in a number of fields ranging from automotive to biomedical. Natural cellulose fibers have been frequently used as the reinforcement component in polymers to add the specific properties in the final product. A variety of cellulose fibers based polymer composite materials have been developed using various synthetic strategies. Seeing the immense advantages of cellulose fibers, in this article we discuss the processing of biorenewable natural cellulose fibers; chemical functionalization of cellulose fibers; synthesis of polymer resins; different strategies to prepare cellulose based green polymer composites, and diverse applications of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composite materials. The article provides an in depth analysis and comprehensive knowledge to the beginners in the field of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composites. The prime aim of this review article is to demonstrate the recent development and emerging applications of natural cellulose fibers and their polymer materials.

659 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The growing ecological and environmental consciousness has driven efforts for development of new innovative materials for various end-use applications. Polymers synthesized from natural resources, have gained considerable research interest in the recent years. This review paper is intended to provide a brief outline of work that covers in the area of biocomposites, major class of biodegradable polymers, natural fibres, as well as their manufacturing techniques and properties has been highlighted. Various surface modification methods were incorporated to improve the fibre–matrix adhesion resulting in the enhancement of mechanical properties of the biocomposites. Moreover, an economical impact and future direction of these materials has been critically reviewed. This review concludes that the biocomposites form one of the emerging areas in polymer science that gain attention for use in various applications ranging from automobile to the building industries.

630 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is evident from the literature survey presented herein that modified cellulose-based adsorbents exhibit good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants, however, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of these adsorbent on a commercial scale, leading to the improvement of pollution control.
Abstract: In recent decades, increased domestic, agricultural and industrial activities worldwide have led to the release of various pollutants, such as toxic heavy metals, inorganic anions, organics, micropollutants and nutrients into the aquatic environment. The removal of these wide varieties of pollutants for better quality of water for various activities is an emerging issue and a robust and eco-friendly treatment technology is needed for the purpose. It is well known that cellulosic materials can be obtained from various natural sources and can be employed as cheap adsorbents. Their adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions and other aquatic pollutants can be significantly affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified cellulose exhibits higher adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants than their unmodified forms. Numerous chemicals have been used for cellulose modifications which include mineral and organic acids, bases, oxidizing agent, organic compounds, etc. This paper reviews the current state of research on the use of cellulose, a naturally occurring material, its modified forms and their efficacy as adsorbents for the removal of various pollutants from waste streams. In this review, an extensive list of various cellulose-based adsorbents from literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities under various conditions for the removal of various pollutants, as available in the literature, are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancement on the preparation of cellulose-based adsorbents. It is evident from the literature survey presented herein that modified cellulose-based adsorbents exhibit good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of these adsorbents on a commercial scale, leading to the improvement of pollution control.

538 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...4 glycosidic linkages (Faruk et al., 2012; Henriksson and Berglund, 2007; O'Connell et al., 2008) (Fig....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This review article concerning natural and man-made cellulose fibre reinforced plastics, introduces possible applications of this material group. The physical properties of natural fibres are mainly determined by the chemical and physical composition, such as the structure of fibres, cellulose content, angle of fibrils, cross-section, and by the degree of polymerization. Only a few characteristic values, but especially the specific mechanical properties, can reach comparable values of traditional reinforcing fibres. This physical structure can be modified by using alkali treatment and acetylation processes. The application of natural fibres as reinforcements in composite materials requires, just as for glass-fibre reinforced composites, a strong adhesion between the fibre and the matrix, regardless of whether a traditional polymer (thermoplastics or thermosets) matrix, a biodegradable polymer matrix or cement is used. Further this article gives a survey about physical and chemical treatment methods which improve the fibre matrix adhesion, their results and effects on the physical properties of composites. These different treatments change among others the hydrophilic character of the natural fibres, so that moisture effects in the composite are reduced. To bring about hydrophobic properties to natural fibres, a special treatment, termed acetylation, can be used. The effectiveness of this method is strongly influenced by the treatment conditions used. The mechanical and other physical properties of the composite are generally dependent on the fibre content, which also determines the possible amount of coupling agents in the composite. The influence of such treatments by taking into account fibre content on the creep, quasi-static, cyclic dynamic and impact behaviour of natural fibre reinforced plastics are discussed in detail. For special performance requirements, hybrid composites made of natural and conventional fibres can be prepared with desired properties. The processing conditions play, next to the mechanical properties of natural fibres, an important role for the industrial use of these materials. The results presented in this paper show, that natural fibres can be processed with the already commonly applied methods: glass mat thermoplastic matrix (GMT), sheet moulding compound (SMC) or bulk moulding compound (BMC). For the processing of thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibres, new methods (e.g. the “EXPRESS” processing) are of increasing importance. Natural fibres seem to have little resistance towards environmental influences. This can be recognized in the composite and can be advantageously utilized for the development of biological degradable composites with good physical properties.

3,889 citations


"Biocomposites reinforced with natur..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Bledzki nd Gassan have reviewed the reinforcement of the most eadily used natural fibers in polymer composites up until 999 in their review paper [15]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Recently the critical discussion about the preservation of natural resources and recycling has led to the renewed interest concerning biomaterials with the focus on renewable raw materials. Because of increasing environmental consciousness and demands of legislative authorities, use and removal of traditional composite structures, usually made of glass, carbon or aramid fibers being reinforced with epoxy, unsaturated polyester, or phenolics, are considered critically. Recent advances in natural fiber development, genetic engineering and composite science offer significant opportunities for improved materials from renewable resources with enhanced support for global sustainability. The important feature of composite materials is that they can be designed and tailored to meet different requirements. Since natural fibers are cheap and biodegradable, the biodegradable composites from biofibers and biodegradable polymers will render a contribution in the 21st century due to serious environmental problem. Biodegradable polymers have offered scientists a possible solution to waste-disposal problems associated with traditional petroleum-derived plastics. For scientists the real challenge lies in finding applications which would consume sufficiently large quantities of these materials to lead price reduction, allowing biodegradable polymers to compete economically in the market. Today's much better performance of traditional plastics are the outcome of continued RD however the existing biodegradable polymers came to public only few years back. Prices of biodegradable polymers can be reduced on mass scale production; and such mass scale production will be feasible through constant R&D efforts of scientists to improve the performance of biodegradable plastics. Manufacture of biodegradable composites from such biodegradable plastics will enhance the demand of such materials. The structural aspects and properties of several biofibers and biodegradable polymers, recent developments of different biodegradable polymers and biocomposites are discussed in this review article. Collaborative R&D efforts among material scientists and engineers as well as intensive co-operation and co-ordination among industries, research institutions and government are essential to find various commercial applications of biocomposites even beyond to our imagination.

2,386 citations


01 Sep 2001
Abstract: In this work, natural fibres (sisal, kenaf, hemp, jute and coir) reinforced polypropylene composites were processed by compression moulding using a film stacking method. The mechanical properties of the different natural fibre composites were tested and compared. A further comparison was made with the corresponding properties of glass mat reinforced polypropylene composites from the open literature. Kenaf, hemp and sisal composites showed comparable tensile strength and modulus results but in impact properties hemp appears to out-perform kenaf. The tensile modulus, impact strength and the ultimate tensile stress of kenaf reinforced polypropylene composites were found to increase with increasing fibre weight fraction. Coir fibre composites displayed the lowest mechanical properties, but their impact strength was higher than that of jute and kenaf composites. In most cases the specific properties of the natural fibre composites were found to compare favourably with those of glass.

1,963 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this work, natural fibres (sisal, kenaf, hemp, jute and coir) reinforced polypropylene composites were processed by compression moulding using a film stacking method The mechanical properties of the different natural fibre composites were tested and compared A further comparison was made with the corresponding properties of glass mat reinforced polypropylene composites from the open literature Kenaf, hemp and sisal composites showed comparable tensile strength and modulus results but in impact properties hemp appears to out-perform kenaf The tensile modulus, impact strength and the ultimate tensile stress of kenaf reinforced polypropylene composites were found to increase with increasing fibre weight fraction Coir fibre composites displayed the lowest mechanical properties, but their impact strength was higher than that of jute and kenaf composites In most cases the specific properties of the natural fibre composites were found to compare favourably with those of glass

1,955 citations


"Biocomposites reinforced with natur..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recent works regarding sisal and jute fiber [293], sisal [294], abaca [295], abaca and sisal [296], flax [297], jute fibers [298], sisal, abaca and bamboo fiber [299] reinforced polyester composites have been developed....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This review deals with a recent study of the literature on the various aspects of cellulosic fibres and biocomposites. Cellulosic fibre reinforced polymeric composites are finding applications in many fields ranging from construction industry to automotive industry. The pros and cons of using these fibres are enumerated in this review. The classification of composites into green composites, hybrid biocomposites and textile biocomposites are discussed. New developments dealing with cellulose based nanocomposites and electrospinning of nanofibres have also been presented. Recent studies pertaining to the above topics have also been cited. Finally, the applications of cellulosic fibre reinforced polymeric composites have been highlighted.

1,682 citations