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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.130152

Biodegradation competence of Streptomyces toxytricini D2 isolated from leaves surface of the hybrid cotton crop against β cypermethrin.

04 Mar 2021-Chemosphere (Pergamon)-Vol. 276, pp 130152-130152
Abstract: The frequent application of β cypermethrin in farming activity, causing severe soil and water contamination. Thus, finding a suitable microbial agent to degrade the toxic pesticide into less or nontoxic components is vital. Hence, β cypermethrin-resistant predominant bacteria from the pesticide-exposed surface of cotton leaves were isolated and optimized the growth conditions required for the significant degradation of β cypermethrin. Six dominant bacterial cultures were isolated from pesticide exposed cotton leaf samples, and among them, COL3 showed better tolerance to 6% of β cypermethrin than others. This COL3 was identified as Streptomyces toxytricini D2 through the 16S rRNA analysis. The suitable growth requirements of S. toxytricini D2 were optimized with various essential growth parameters to degrade β cypermethrin and the results showed that a significant degradation of β cypermethrin was observed at 35 °C, pH 8.0, 1.5% of inoculum, and nutritional factors like glycerol (20 mg L−1), ammonium sulfate (15 mg L−1), and calcium phosphates (10 mg L−1) were served as better carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate sources respectively. The degradation percentage and half-life of β cypermethrin were calculated as 80.71 ± 1.17% and 48.15 h respectively by S. toxytricini D2. The GC-MS analysis results showed that S. toxytricini D2 effectively degraded the β cypermethrin into 5 components such as methyl salicylate, phenol, phthalic acid, 3-phenoxy benzaldehyde, and 3-PBA. This is the first report, revealed that the S. toxytricini D2 belongs to the Actinobacteria has the potential to degrade the β cypermethrin into less or nontoxic metabolites under optimized conditions.

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Topics: Cypermethrin (62%), Streptomyces toxytricini (52%)
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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2021.05.414
M. Naveen1, R. Kavitha1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Herbs are an extraordinary wellspring of homegrown medications since they produce a rich source of bioactive substances, successful for pharmacological exercises. The main objective of this examination was to research the physico-chemical parameter, identify the different phytochemical compounds and functional groups present in the aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis through preliminary phytochemical screening, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) investigation. Preliminary secondary metabolites analysis of the different extracts showed the positive result for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides and phytosterols. In the quantitative investigation, the alkaloids (12.44 ± 3.11 gm/100 gm), flavonoids (42.33 ± 1.12 mg RE/gm), total phenolics (86.11 ± 0.02 mg GAE/gm) and tannins (36.23 ± 2.12 mg TAE/gm extricate were resolved. In HPLC investigation fingerprinting of aqueous leaves revealed six peaks at a wavelength of 218 nm. FT-IR spectroscopic examination showed O–H, N–H, — C = C, N-O, C-C, C-N and C-Cl stretching and functional groups like alkaloids, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, amine, amide, alkenes, and nitro compounds were identified. The GC–MS examination of Clerodendrum phlomidis aqueous leaf extract showed twenty compounds with ten known biological activities. This work tends to be presumed that the plant contains viable phytochemical compounds, which might be utilized for therapeutic purposes. This investigation offers a platform for utilizing Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves as a natural option for the treatment of many diseases.

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Topics: Clerodendrum phlomidis (66%), Phytochemical (53%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13204-021-01945-X
Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of synthesizing AgNPs by aqueous extract of pre-formulated Liv-Pro-08 polyherbal formulation and characterize the synthesized AgNPs. Moreover, their antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective activity using HePG2 cell line, and performed acute and sub-acute toxicity study on male wistar rats. The aqueous extract of Liv-Pro-08 reduces the AgNO3 into AgNPs. It is primarily identified by the brown color formation in the reaction mix, and the predominant peak was found at 485 nm UV–visible spectrophotometer. The FT-IR analysis results showed that the synthesized phytomolecules capped AgNPs retain four significant functional group peaks correspond to various groups (aromatic amine, alkyne, etc.) of AgNPs. The SEM analysis states that the synthesized AgNPs were in spherical and cubic with 50–70 nm sized. As the Liv-Pro-08 contains significant antioxidant phytochemicals, it showed reasonable antioxidant and reduced power activity with the IC50 values of 711.00 µg mL and 613.75 µg mL correspondingly. The synthesized AgNPs showed an absence of cytotoxicity and possess significant hepatoprotective activity in hepatotoxin (CCl4) exposed HePG2 cell line. The acute and sub-acute toxicity of synthesized AgNPs were studied in male wistar rats. The attained results showed the absence of acute toxicity. Surprisingly, in a sub-acute study, the biomolecule contents were increased in group IV (100 mg kg body weight) treatment than control (untreated). These results suggest that the Liv-Pro-08 synthesized and phytomolecules impregnated AgNPs might be considered for drug delivery-related processes and used as a cure for liver diseases.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13204-021-02097-8
Abstract: Leptospirosis is a globally re-emerging infectious disease mainly for mammals. The infection is caused by the spirochete Gram-negative bacterium Leptospira interrogans, which affects animals and humans worldwide. In our previous studies, recombinant protein production has been obtained from the bacterial expression system. In this study, we have investigated the over expression of LipL32 and hGMCSF genes into yeast expression system for obtaining a high yield of recombinant protein production. Here, we described the yeast expression studies with several applications such as protein folding, fast growth, and post-translational modification. The expression studies were carried out in a novel protein expression system, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris KM71 strain. The LipL32, Green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and human granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGMCSF) genes were cloned into pPIC9 yeast expression vector. The recombinant clones of pPIC9-EGFP-LipL32 and pPIC9-EGFP-hGMCSF-LipL32 were transformed into Pichia pastoris KM71 strain by electroporation. Media optimization and other physiological characters were studied for the transformed recombinant protein. The protein was then purified using a Ni–NTA column; meanwhile, the recombinant DNA constructs contain His-tag at the C- terminal end. Finally, the intracellular EGFP expression of pPIC9-EGFP-LipL32, and pPIC9-EGFP-hGMCSF-LipL32 in Pichia pastoris KM71 strain was confirmed by fluorescence microscopic analysis. Protein–protein dockings were done to study LipL32-Adjuvant (hGMCSF, hIgGFC, and hC3d) interactions. Furthermore, this docking analysis was shown better interaction between LipL32, and hGMCSF, which is also used for the enhanced vaccine potential against leptospirosis.

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Topics: Pichia pastoris (66%), Expression vector (56%), Recombinant DNA (51%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13204-021-02061-6
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the phytochemical profile and antibacterial competence of Curcuma amada rhizome extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Furthermore, the phytochemicals extracted from C. amada methanolic extract were analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that the methanolic extract contained a significant amount of phytochemicals, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, carbohydrates, protein, and fibre, that were not present in other solvent extracts. The fluorescence study results also confirmed the presence of these phytochemicals. Furthermore, about 70% of methanolic extract showed 6 major peaks at the wavelength of 218 nm. Similarly, the FTIR results declared stretching vibrations (O–H, C–H, — C=C, C–C, C–N, O–H and C–H) related to significant functional groups corresponding to alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, aliphatic amines and carboxylic acids. The antibacterial activity results showed that the methanolic extract could act against MRSA S1, followed by MRSA S2 and MRSA S4 strains at the concentration of 500 mg mL−1. These findings indicate that the methanolic rhizome extract of C. amada contains a significant amount of various biologically active phytochemicals with anti-MRSA activities, and thus could serve as a potential source of therapeutic drugs.

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Topics: Curcuma amada (56%), Phytochemical (56%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13204-021-02062-5
Abstract: Lipases, particularly microbial lipases, are important industrial biocatalysts. As a result, lipase enzyme screening, synthesis, and purification from microbial strains are constantly evolving to meet the needs of the pharmaceutical and food industries. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the most potential lipase-producing bacterial strains from Aavin dairy industry effluent contaminated soil. Furthermore, growth parameters, such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources, were optimized for lipase enzyme production from selected bacterial strains. According to the findings, 9 strains (V1–V9) of 15 bacterial isolates were found to be lipase producers. However, three strains (V1, V7, and V8) predominated and demonstrated significant lipase-producing activity. These V1, V7, and V8 bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus pumilus V1, Bacillus pumilus V7, and Bacillus subtilis V8 through 16S rRNA sequencing. About 16.6 to 27.8 µg mL−1 of lipase production was recorded under the optimal growth conditions: pH 8, temperature 37 °C, fructose and yeast extract as suitable carbon and nitrogen source. Among these 3 strains B. pumilus V1 showed excellent lipase productivity than others. The molecular weight of this lipase produced by bacteria was determined to be 35 kDa using sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

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Topics: Lipase (64%), Bacillus pumilus (62%), Bacillus subtilis (50%) ... show more
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39 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-018-27684-8
03 Jul 2018-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Thyroid plays an important role in the endocrine system of the human body. Its characterization by diffuse optics can open new path ways in the non-invasive diagnosis of thyroid pathologies. Yet, the absorption spectra of tyrosine and thyroglobulin–key tissue constituents specific to the thyroid organ–in the visible to near infrared range are not fully available. Here, we present the optical characterization of tyrosine (powder), thyroglobulin (granular form) and iodine (aqueous solution) using a time domain broadband diffuse optical spectrometer in the 550–1350 nm range. Various systematic errors caused by physics of photo migration and sample inherent properties were effectively suppressed by means of advanced time domain diffuse optical methods. A brief comparison with various other known tissue constituents is presented, which reveals key spectral regions for the quantification of the thyroid absorbers in an in vivo scenario.

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537 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1099/IJS.0.65780-0
Abstract: The higher ranks of the class Actinobacteria were proposed and described in 1997. At each rank, the taxa were delineated from each other solely on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic clustering and taxon-specific 16S rRNA signature nucleotides. In the past 10 years, many novel members have been assigned to this class while, at the same time, some members have been reclassified. The new 16S rRNA gene sequence information and the changes in phylogenetic positions of some taxa influence decisions about which 16S rRNA nucleotides to define as taxon-specific. As a consequence, the phylogenetic relationships of Actinobacteria at higher levels may need to be reconstructed. Here, we present new 16S rRNA signature nucleotide patterns of taxa above the family level and indicate the affiliation of genera to families. These sets replace the signatures published in 1997. In addition, Actinopolysporineae subord. nov. and Actinopolysporaceae fam. nov. are proposed to accommodate the genus Actinopolyspora, Kineosporiineae subord. nov. and Kineosporiaceae fam. nov. are proposed to accommodate the genera Kineococcus, Kineosporia and Quadrisphaera, Beutenbergiaceae fam. nov. is proposed to accommodate the genera Beutenbergia, Georgenia and Salana and Cryptosporangiaceae fam. nov. is proposed to accommodate the genus Cryptosporangium. The families Nocardiaceae and Gordoniaceae are proposed to be combined in an emended family Nocardiaceae. Emended descriptions are also proposed for most of the other higher taxa.

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Topics: Phylogenetic tree (51%)

479 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00263-8
Akbar Nawab1, Asma Aleem1, Abdul Malik1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Soil samples were taken from different agricultural fields and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues by gas chromatography. The analysis indicated that the soil samples contained some common organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH and Aldrin. γ-HCH was detected as 47.35 ppb whereas the concentrations of α-HCH, β-HCH, p′,p′-DDE, o′,p′-DDT were 38.81, 1.79, 7.10 and 13.30 ppb, respectively, in the same soil. Two Pseudomonas strains isolated from agricultural soil were found to possess γ-hexachlorocyclohexane degrading ability when the isolates were grown in a mineral salt medium containing γ-HCH as the sole source of carbon and a number of metabolites were produced and detected by the gas chromatography. These bacterial isolates were further tested for carbohydrate and amino acid utilization as well as for their susceptibility against 10 commonly used antibiotics namely amoxycillin, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin, doxycycline, methicillin, nalidixic acid, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Both the isolates were also screened for plasmid DNA and found to harbour a single plasmid.

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Topics: Aldrin (55%), Pesticide (51%)

156 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10532-007-9116-8
01 Feb 2008-Biodegradation
Abstract: A bacterium capable of utilizing pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin as sole source of carbon was isolated from soil and identified as a Micrococcus sp. The organism also utilized fenvalerate, deltamethrin, perimethrin, 3-phenoxybenzoate, phenol, protocatechuate and catechol as growth substrates. The organism degraded cypermethrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage to yield 3-phenoxybenzoate, leading to loss of its insecticidal activity. 3-Phenoxybenzoate was further metabolized by diphenyl ether cleavage to yield protocatechuate and phenol as evidenced by isolation and identification of metabolites and enzyme activities in the cell-free extracts. Protocatechuate and phenol were oxidized by ortho-cleavage pathway. Thus, the organism was versatile in detoxification and complete mineralization of pyrethroid cypermethrin

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Topics: Cypermethrin (58%), Deltamethrin (51%), Pyrethroid (50%)

154 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2011.03.086
Chen Zhang1, Shenghui Wang2, Yanchun YanInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa CH7, isolated from activated sludge, was able not only to isomerize and degrade beta-cypermethrin but also to utilize it as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth and produce biosurfactant. The strain effectively degraded beta-cypermethrin with inocula biomass of 0.1-0.2 g L(-1) at 25-35°C, pH 6-9, and a final concentration of beta-cypermethrin 25-900 mg L(-1). Via response surface methodology analysis, we found the optimal condition was 29.4°C, pH 7.0, and inocula biomass of 0.15 g L(-1); under these conditions, about 90% of the beta-cypermethrin could be degraded within 12 days. Noticeably, biosurfactant was detected in the MSM culture of strain CH7, suggesting that the biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) could potentially enhance the degradation of beta-cypermethrin by promoting the dissolution, adsorption, and absorption of the hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, CH7 may serve as a promising strain in the bioremediation of wastewater and soil polluted by beta-cypermethrin.

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Topics: Biodegradation (55%), Rhamnolipid (53%)

111 Citations