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Journal ArticleDOI

Biodeterioration risk index of exhibit present in museum galleries of tropical climate

12 Jan 2016-Museum Management and Curatorship (Routledge)-Vol. 31, Iss: 3, pp 268-282

AbstractThe objective of the study was to develop a fungal biodeterioration risk scale to suggest gallery wise management priority for the museum curators. Jorasanko Museum, Kolkata, India located in tropical climate had been selected for this study. This museum conserves exhibits of the family of first Non-Europian Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore. Deterioration factors like viable spore load, species diversity, species dominance, relative humidity, air movement, maximum temperature, presence of SOx and type of exhibit present in that particular gallery in three seasons in the museum had been measured. A leaner equation was developed with the help of weightage given for the development of an equation using the primary data collected. The data coming from the equation were applied in a scale consisting low risk to very high risk of the gallery. The highest risk was found in the monsoon season (Risk > 4). Gallery containing library materials showed highest risk of deterioration (Risk = 4.19) at monsoon ...

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1977-Nature
Abstract: Ecological Sanity. By George Claus and Karen Bolander. Pp. xv + 592. (David McKay: New York, 1977.) $16.95.

47 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Five sampling locations in Kolkata frequented by a heterogeneous human population, containing various types of fungal growth-promoting substances, were chosen as sampling locations where an Andersen Two-Stage Cascade Impactor was ran using Rose Bengal agar and Potato Dextrose agar media plates.
Abstract: This paper aims to quantify airborne fungal load in air-conditioned rooms and develop a health risk rating scale for different indoor environments. Five sampling locations in Kolkata frequented by a heterogeneous human population, containing various types of fungal growth-promoting substances (FGPS) like old documents, food items, waste hair, etc. were chosen as sampling locations where an Andersen Two-Stage Cascade Impactor was ran using Rose Bengal agar and Potato Dextrose agar media plates. Total spore load (CFU/m3), species diversity, species dominance, human exposure time, susceptible age and FGPS were considered the risk factors for this study. A risk rating scale was developed after evaluating the relative importance of these different factors in relation to human health. The most dominant genera were Aspergillus, followed by Penicillium. Maximum CFU was observed at library, followed by computer room.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Establishing affordable, efficient, accessible, innovative, and multidisciplinary methodologies to the diagnosis of the conservation state of an artwork is key to carry out appropriate strategies of conservation and consequently to the creation of modern public policies on cultural heritage. Limited access to large-format paintings is a challenge to restoration scientists seeking to obtain information quickly, in a non-destructive and non-invasive manner, and identify regions of interest. Therefore, we put forward two unique software tools based on multispectral imaging techniques, with the long-term aim to assess the artist’s intentions, creative process, and colour palette. This development paves the way for a comprehensive and multidisciplinary understanding of the mysteries encompassed in each pictorial layer, through the study of their physical and chemical characteristics. We conducted the first ever study on Musas I and Musas II, two large-format paintings by Italian artist Carlo Ferrario, located in the National Theatre of Costa Rica. In this study, we used our novel imaging techniques to choose regions of interest in order to study sample layers; while also assessing the works’ state of conservation and possible biodeterioration. We explored the applications of our two versatile software tools, RegionOfInterest and CrystalDistribution, and confirmed paint stratigraphies by means of microscopy and spectroscopy analyses (OM, SEM-EDX, Fluorescent microscopy, FTIR-ATR and micro-Raman). In a pilot study, we identified the artist’s main colour palette: zinc white, lead white, chrome yellow, lead read, viridian, along with artificial vermilion and ultramarine pigments. We were able to identify artificial vermilion and ultramarine and distinguish them from the natural pigments using CrystalDistribution to map the average size and diameter of the pigment crystals within the paint layers. This study demonstrated that software-based multidisciplinary imaging techniques are novel in establishing preventive and non-invasive methods for historical painting conservation studies, in addition, this study provides tools with great potential to be used in the future in applications such as virtual restoration.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Establishing affordable, efficient, accessible, innovative, and multidisciplinary methodologies are key to the creation of modern public policies on cultural heritage. Limited access to large-format paintings is a challenge to restoration scientists seeking to obtain information quickly, in a non-invasive manner, and identify regions of interest. Therefore, we put forward two unique software tools based on multispectral imaging techniques, with the long-term aim of assessing the artist's intentions, creative process, and color palette. This development paves the way for a comprehensive and multidisciplinary understanding of the mysteries encompassed in each pictorial layer, through the study of their physical and chemical characteristics. We conducted the first-ever study on Musas I and II, two large-format paintings by Italian artist Carlo Ferrario, located in the National Theatre of Costa Rica. In this study, we used our novel techniques to chose regions of interest in order to study sample layers; while also assessing the works' state of conservation and possible biodeterioration. We explored the applications of our two versatile software tools, RegionOfInterest and CrystalDistribution, and confirmed paint stratigraphies by means of microscopy and spectroscopy analyses. In a pilot study, we identified the artist's main color palette: zinc white, lead white, chrome yellow, lead read, viridian, along with artificial vermilion and ultramarine pigments. We were able to identify artificial vermilion and ultramarine and distinguish them from the natural pigments using CrystalDistribution to map the average size and diameter of the pigment crystals within the paint layers. This study demonstrated that software-based multidisciplinary imaging techniques are fundamental in establishing preventive and non-invasive methods for historical painting conservation studies and virtual restoration.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Dec 2019
Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of risks which threaten the future sustainability and operations of agricultural museums in the Czech Republic. In the section on methodology, an applicable risk model has been proposed regarding the condition of museums in the Czech Republic. Using this model, the directors of agricultural museums can assess the most significant risks which may jeopardize the sustainability of museum operations over a three-year period. The greatest risks, according to museum directors, are a lack money for investment, the inability to retain high-quality staff, and issues with technical support for exhibitions. Assessing the importance of risk is positively associated with previous experiences of a particular type of risk, whereas the association of the importance of risk with previous managerial practice is rather inconclusive.

1 citations


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TL;DR: Education and close collaboration of mycologists and restorers are needed to develop object specific methods for the conservation and treatment of contaminated objects.
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339 citations


"Biodeterioration risk index of exhi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The prevalence of these three genera has been previously observed in a hospital environment (Sautour et al. 2009) and other heritage buildings (Sterflinger 2010)....

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  • ...Biodeterioration can be defined as the irreversible loss of value and/or information of an object of art following the attack by living organisms (Sterflinger 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evidence regarding indoor mold exposure and mycotoxicosis is reviewed, with an emphasis on S. chartarum, and possible end-organ effects, including pulmonary, immunologic, neurologic, and oncologic disorders are examined.
Abstract: Damp buildings often have a moldy smell or obvious mold growth; some molds are human pathogens. This has caused concern regarding health effects of moldy indoor environments and has resulted in many studies of moisture- and mold-damaged buildings. Recently, there have been reports of severe illness as a result of indoor mold exposure, particularly due to Stachybotrys chartarum. While many authors describe a direct relationship between fungal contamination and illness, close examination of the literature reveals a confusing picture. Here, we review the evidence regarding indoor mold exposure and mycotoxicosis, with an emphasis on S. chartarum. We also examine possible end-organ effects, including pulmonary, immunologic, neurologic, and oncologic disorders. We discuss the Cleveland infant idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage reports in detail, since they provided important impetus for concerns about Stachybotrys. Some valid concerns exist regarding the relationship between indoor mold exposure and human disease. Review of the literature reveals certain fungus-disease associations in humans, including ergotism (Claviceps species), alimentary toxic aleukia (Fusarium), and liver disease (Aspergillys). While many papers suggest a similar relationship between Stachybotrys and human disease, the studies nearly uniformly suffer from significant methodological flaws, making their findings inconclusive. As a result, we have not found well-substantiated supportive evidence of serious illness due to Stachybotrys exposure in the contemporary environment. To address issues of indoor mold-related illness, there is an urgent need for studies using objective markers of illness, relevant animal models, proper epidemiologic techniques, and examination of confounding factors.

329 citations


"Biodeterioration risk index of exhi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...An investigation of air-borne microfungi in old building shows that more than 150 CFU m−3 are present in the dust of a room (Kuhn and Ghannoum 2003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of a variety of well-known biodeterioration phenomena observed on different materials, such as stone and building materials, objects exhibited in museums and libraries, as well as human remains and burial-related materials and some prominent examples of successful and unsuccessful conservation treatments are given.
Abstract: Microorganisms (bacteria, archaea and fungi), in addition to lichens and insect pests, cause problems in the conservation of cultural heritage because of their biodeteriorative potential. This holds true for all types of historic artefacts, and even for art made of modern materials, in public buildings, museums and private art collections. The variety of biodeterioration phenomena observed on materials of cultural heritage is determined by several factors, such as the chemical composition and nature of the material itself, the climate and exposure of the object, in addition to the manner and frequency of surface cleaning and housekeeping in museums. This study offers a review of a variety of well-known biodeterioration phenomena observed on different materials, such as stone and building materials, objects exhibited in museums and libraries, as well as human remains and burial-related materials. The decontamination of infected artefacts, exhibition rooms and depots incurs high expenditure for museums. Nevertheless, the question has to be raised: whether the process of biodeterioration of cultural heritage can or should be stopped under all circumstances, or whether we have to accept it as a natural and an implicit consecution of its creation. This study also highlights critically the pros and cons of biocide treatments and gives some prominent examples of successful and unsuccessful conservation treatments. Furthermore, an outlook on the future research needs and developments in this highly interesting field is given.

262 citations


"Biodeterioration risk index of exhi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Most of the fungi associated with the damage of paper and oil paintings on canvas can dissolve cellulose fibres by the action of cellulolytic enzymes, or may discolour the support, dissolve glues and inks or degrade the oil binders (Sterflinger and Piñar 2013)....

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  • ...Damage by fungi can reoccur if a cultural asset is returned to the same room with the same indoor climate and room air containing fungal spores after eradication of the fungi from the artwork and repair of any damage (Abe 2010; Sterflinger and Piñar 2013)....

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