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Book ChapterDOI

Biomining: An Innovative and Practical Solution for Reclamation of Open Dumpsite

03 Jan 2020-pp 167-178

Abstract: Many of the developing nations practice open dumping as a final disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. These dumpsites of MSW create the surface water pollution through the leachate discharge from the dumpsite, pollute the groundwater by leaching of heavy metals from the dumped solid waste over the years and also create air pollution in terms of release of CO2, CH4, thus contributing to climate change and other toxic gases. Thus, dumpsite becomes an eyesore and it is the need of the hour to find an alternate way of environmentally friendly disposal method of MSW. A feasible solution for the reclamation of these large sites is by biomining in which different groups of materials are extracted from the dumpsite and recycled or reused in a proper way thus resulting in the monetary value and resource flow. Biomining concept is a simple, innovative, economically feasible, practical, quick, and environmentally acceptable measure to remediate the old open dumpsite to achieve zero emission of landfill gases and leachate, and also reclaim the land reusability and zero maintenance. An integrated approach has been incorporated in which the stabilization part in biomining is carried out through bioreactor landfill treatment and then followed by biomining concepts. A conceptual framework for Biomining of the MSW dumpsite at Chennai has been developed and the implementation of the same in a site has been discussed. Also, a detailed framework for future management of open dumpsites has been developed and discussed.
Topics: Biomining (51%), Landfill gas (51%), Municipal solid waste (50%), Bioreactor landfill (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
S. Mohan1, Charles P. Joseph1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The massive growth in the generation of municipal solid waste due to the rising food demand, population growth, industrialization, urbanization, economic growth, lifestyles, and other necessities of the global population have embraced the unscientific disposal of wastes in particular with developing countries like India, China, Brazil, etc. Nearly 2 billion metric tonnages of wastes are generated globally each year and nearly half of it is subjected to open burning. As evident from the physiochemical characteristics of the wastes in some of the major cities in India, more than 50% of the fresh waste contribute to organic fraction and has got high energy and nutrient value. In fact, in developing countries, the management of MSW is exacerbated by unscientific practices leading to increased environmental contamination and risk to public health. India is facing a seemingly insurmountable challenge of treating and managing the historical waste, in addition to the large accumulation of fresh daily waste. This paper attempts to enumerate the approaches that should be taken by different institutions in their various capacities to move from open dumps to scientific and environmentally friendly waste management systems embarking on the circular economy concepts. To manage the current situation, appropriate knowledge about waste generation and its treatment are necessary. The current study reveals the data regarding waste generation in different states, highlights the issues with open dumping, and a few methods which can be effectively used to treat solid waste are enumerated.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Across the Global South, post-consumer waste glass is an often dumped, and under-utilised resource. Even in Malawi, with widespread return schemes, many barriers exist, inhibiting reuse, and necess...

Cites background from "Biomining: An Innovative and Practi..."

  • ...…solid waste (MSW) dumps for recoverable materials, primarily metals and rare elements, but also soil-like materials that can be utilised in construction and infrastructural applications (see (Prechthai, Padmasri, and Visvanathan 2008; Somani et al. 2018; Mohan and Joseph 2020; Somani et al. 2020)....

    [...]



References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Landfill bioreactor technology offers important advantages in the management and treatment of municipal solid waste, including accelerated waste stabilization rates, enhanced gas production, facilitated leachate management, volume reduction and minimized long-term liability.
Abstract: Landfill bioreactor technology offers important advantages in the management and treatment of municipal solid waste, including accelerated waste stabilization rates, enhanced gas production, facilitated leachate management, volume reduction andminimized long-term liability. These advantages have been documented in laboratory- , pilot- and full-scale investigations. Although challenges remain in implementing the technology, bioreactor landfills are designed and operated with increasing frequency.

264 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: a b s t r a c t In a circular economy material loops are closed by recycling of pre-consumer manufacturing scrap/ residues, urban mining of End-of-Life products and land !ll mining of historic (and future) urban waste streams. However, in the past land !ll mining was not performed with a focus on resource recovery. This paper addresses this gap by introducing the concept of Enhanced Land !ll Mining, de !ned as the safe conditioning, excavation and integrated valorization of land !lled waste streams as both materials and energy, using innovative transformation technologies and respecting the most stringent social and ecological criteria. The feasibility of ELFM is studied by synthesizing the research on the Closing the Circle project, the !rst ELFM project targeting the 18 million metric ton land !ll in Houthalen-Helchteren in the East of Belgium. It is argued that Environmental Impact Assessments of ELFM projects should be wide in scope and time. Embedded in a broad resource management perspective, the worldwide potential of ELFM is highlighted, in terms of climate gains, materials and energy utilization, job creation and land reclamation. The potential is quanti !ed for the EU-27 with its 150,000 e500,000 land !lls. However, for ELFM to reach its full potential, strategic policy decisions and tailored support systems, including combined incentives for material recycling, energy utilization and nature restoration, are required.

246 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of current status ofSolid waste management in India is presented which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans.
Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans.

197 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Irem Šan, Turgut T. Onay1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This research showed that increased frequency of leachate recirculation accelerates the stabilization rate of waste matrix and confirmed that leachating recirculating is a very feasible way for in situ leachates treatment.
Abstract: Landfilled municipal solid waste can be treated by introducing leachate into the waste matrix. Increasing attention is being given to landfill leachate recirculation as a means for in situ leachate treatment and landfill stabilization. Landfills with leachate recirculation may be operated as municipal solid waste bioreactor treatment system rather than as a conventional waste dumping sites. In order to study the impact of various leachate recirculation regimes on municipal solid waste degradation, two landfill-simulating reactors, one with leachate recycle and one without, were constructed and placed at a constant room temperature (34 degrees C). Both reactors were filled with a municipal solid waste mixture representing the typical solid waste composition determined for the city of Istanbul. For the purpose of this experiment, leachate recirculation volume and frequency were changed periodically. This research showed that increased frequency of leachate recirculation accelerates the stabilization rate of waste matrix. About 2l of recirculated leachate and four times per week recirculation strategy were found to provide the highest degree of waste stabilization. Additionally, this research confirmed that leachate recirculation is a very feasible way for in situ leachate treatment.

160 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2004-Waste Management
TL;DR: A step-wise research method for market exploration to provide an adequate, cost-saving and timely answer by relying on a series of quick scans to select the most profitable landfills in a fast and efficient way.
Abstract: Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Consequently, market size for companies operating landfills shrinks. Among the companies facing the problem is the Dutch company Essent. Given the expected market conditions, it looks for alternative business opportunities. Landfill mining, i.e., the recycling of existing landfills, is considered one of them. Proceeds of landfill mining are related to, for example, recycled materials available for re-use, regained land, and possibilities for a more efficient operation of a landfill. The market for landfill mining is of a considerable size – there are about 3800 landfills located in the Netherlands. Given market size the company faces the dilemma of how to explore this market, i.e., select the most profitable landfills in a fast and efficient way. No existing methods or tools could be found to do so. Therefore, to answer to the problem posed, we propose a step-wise research method for market exploration. The basic idea behind the method is to provide an adequate, cost-saving and timely answer by relying on a series of quick scans. Relevant aspects of a mining project concern the proceeds of regained land and recyclables, the costs of the mining operation and the associated business and environmental risks. The method has been tested for its practical use in a pilot study. The pilot study addressed 147 landfills located in the Dutch Province of Noord-Brabant. The study made clear how method application resulted in the selection of a limited number of high potential landfills in a few weeks, involving minimal research costs.

93 citations