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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13580-021-00334-1

Biotechnological overview of agriculturally important endophytic fungi

04 Mar 2021-Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 62, Iss: 4, pp 1-14
Abstract: The many fascinating aspects of biotechnology in endophytic studies not only concern their interactions with plants but their potential as key players driving the synthesis of certain biomolecules that enhance plant growth, immunity, and protection against environmental stresses. A high microbial population inhabits the rhizosphere due to rhizodeposition and root exudate secretions. The rhizoplane forms a barrier that selectively screens the types of microorganisms infiltrating the root tissues with well-developed hyphae for successful colonization and establishment of endophytic communities within the plant tissues. Fungal endophytes contribute to the physiological and metabolic functions in the host plants, such as nutrient acquisition, nitrogen fixation, and control of plant pathogens. They also contribute to plant growth via complex mechanisms: mutualism or antagonism. The molecular methods of studying these endophytes have provided salient information for harnessing their potential for possible applications in improving agricultural productivity. Despite this, only a small fraction of endophytes have been isolated and explored. Hence, the metagenomic approach has revealed more insights into the endophytic structural diversity and functions for the detection of novel traits that can easily be genetically manipulated for various agricultural and industrial applications. Furthermore, biotechnological applications of biofertilizer from endophytic fungi help ensure a safe environment and aid in the development of agriculturally friendly processes for improved crop yields and productivity.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00344-021-10406-2
Abstract: Despite the importance of diverse plant growth-promoting endophytes in agricultural production, their biotechnological and agricultural applications are not well-documented. The diversity of microbial communities interacting with the endosphere contributes to plant functions and immunity, leading to higher productivity. Plant-microbe interactions range from beneficial in terms of influencing plant growth to harmful, as they also cause plant diseases. Microbial survival in the internal tissues of plants depends on their colonization tendencies and their ability to compete with the indigenous plant microflora. The infiltration of microbes through the external soil-root environment into the plant endosphere significantly enhances growth-promoting attributes of plants such as antibiosis, siderophore production, induced systemic resistance, bioremediation and growth hormones synthesis. However, the growth and diversity of endophytic microbes are influenced by the availability of soil nutrients, presence of pathogens, plant growth stages, plant genome, and other abiotic factors. Knowledge and understanding of the possible use and biotechnological relevance of endosphere communities in sustainable agriculture cannot be overemphasized. Hence, this review discusses the importance of endophytic microbes in agriculture for enhancing crop productivity.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00294-021-01199-8
30 Jun 2021-Current Genetics
Abstract: Diverse agriculturally important microbes have been studied with known potential in plant growth promotion. Providing several opportunities, Stenotrophomonas species are characterized as promising plant enhancers, inducers, and protectors against environmental stressors. The S. indicatrix BOVIS40 isolated from the sunflower root endosphere possessed unique features, as genome insights into the Stenotrophomonas species isolated from oilseed crops in Southern Africa have not been reported. Plant growth-promotion screening and genome analysis of S. indicatrix BOVIS40 were presented in this study. The genomic information reveals various genes underlining plant growth promotion and resistance to environmental stressors. The genome of S. indicatrix BOVIS40 harbors genes involved in the degradation and biotransformation of organic molecules. Also, other genes involved in biofilm production, chemotaxis, and flagellation that facilitate bacterial colonization in the root endosphere and phytohormone genes that modulate root development and stress response in plants were detected in strain BOVIS40. IAA activity of the bacterial strain may be a factor responsible for root formation. A measurable approach to the S. indicatrix BOVIS40 lifestyle can strategically provide several opportunities in their use as bioinoculants in developing environmentally friendly agriculture sustainably. The findings presented here provide insights into the genomic functions of S. indicatrix BOVIS40, which has set a foundation for future comparative studies for a better understanding of the synergism among microbes inhabiting plant endosphere. Hence, highlighting the potential of S. indicatrix BOVIS40 upon inoculation under greenhouse experiment, thus suggesting its application in enhancing plant and soil health sustainably.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10091776
26 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Insights into plant endophytic microbes and their exploration in agriculture have provided opportunities for sustainable plant health and food safety. Notable endophytic Bacillus species with plant growth-promoting traits have been documented; nevertheless, information on genome analysis of B. cereus associated with the sunflower in South Africa has not been studied. Therefore, we present whole-genome sequence of agriculturally important B. cereus strain T4S isolated from sunflower plants. The NextSeq Illumina sequencing yielded 7,255,762 bp sequence reads, 151 bp average read length, 5,945,881 bp genome size, 56 tRNA, 63 rRNA, and G + C content of 34.8%. The phylogeny analysis of strain T4S was similar to B. cereus NJ-W. Secondary metabolites, such as petrobactin, bacillibactin, bacitracin, molybdenum factor, zwittermicin, and fengycin underlining bacterial biocontrol efficacy against phytopathogens were found in the T4S genome. The predicted novel genes in the bacterial genome mediating the complex metabolic pathways can provide a genetic basis in understanding endosphere biology and their multiple functions thereof in crop improvement. Interestingly, seed and root inoculation with strain T4S contributed to sunflower yield under greenhouse experiments. Hence, the detection of notable genes specific for plant growth promotion as validated under in vitro screening, promisingly, suggests the relevance of strain T4S in agricultural biotechnology.

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Topics: Genome size (53%), Cereus (53%), Bacterial genome size (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPLS.2021.741804
Abstract: In the past few decades, the control of pests and diseases of cultivated plants using natural and biological measures has drawn increasing attention in the quest to reduce the level of dependence on chemical products for agricultural production. The use of living organisms, predators, parasitoids, and microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, has proven to be a viable and sustainable pest management technique. Among the aforementioned, fungi, most importantly the insect-pathogenic species, have been in use for more than 150years. These include the most popular strains belonging to the genera Beauveria, Metarhizium, Isaria, Hirsutella, and Lecanicillium. Their application is usually through an inundative approach, which inherently involves exposure of the fungal spores to unfavorable humidity, temperature, and solar radiation conditions. These abiotic factors reduce the persistence and efficacy of these insect-pathogenic fungi. Despite these limitations, over 170 strains have been formulated as mycopesticides and are available for commercial use. In the last few decades, numerous studies have suggested that these species of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) offer far more benefits and have broader ecological functions than hitherto presumed. For instance, aside from their roles as insect killers, it has been well established that they also colonize various host plants and, hence, provide other benefits including plant pathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion and serve as sources of novel bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites, etc. In this light, the potential of EPF as alternatives or perhaps as supplements to chemical pesticides in plant protection is discussed in this review. The paper highlights the numerous benefits associated with endophytic fungal entomopathogen and host plant associations, the mechanisms involved in mediating plant defense against pests and pathogens, and the general limitations to the use of EPF in plant protection. A deeper understanding of these plant host-fungus-insect relationships could help unveil the hidden potentials of fungal endophytes, which would consequently increase the level of acceptance and adoption by users as an integral part of pest management programs and as a suitable alternative to chemical inputs toward sustainable crop production.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10102119
06 Oct 2021-
Abstract: The multiple roles of fungal entomopathogens in host plants’ growth promotion, pest and pathogen management have drawn huge attention for investigation. Endophytic species are known to influence various activities of their associated host plants, and the endophyte-colonized plants have been demonstrated to gain huge benefits from these symbiotic associations. The potential application of fungal endophytes as alternative to inorganic fertilizers for crop improvement has often been proposed. Similarly, various strains of insect pathogenic fungi have been formulated for use as mycopesticides and have been suggested as long-term replacement for the synthetic pesticides that are commonly in use. The numerous concerns about the negative effects of synthetic chemical pesticides have also driven attention towards developing eco-friendly pest management techniques. However, several factors have been underlined to be militating the successful adoption of entomopathogenic fungi and fungal endophytes as plant promoting, pests and diseases control bio-agents. The difficulties in isolation and characterization of novel strains, negative effects of geographical location, vegetation type and human disturbance on fungal entomopathogens, are among the numerous setbacks that have been documented. Although, the latest advances in biotechnology and microbial studies have provided means of overcoming many of these problems. For instance, studies have suggested measures for mitigating the negative effects of biotic and abiotic stressors on entomopathogenic fungi in inundative application on the field, or when applied in the form of fungal endophytes. In spite of these efforts, more studies are needed to be done to achieve the goal of improving the overall effectiveness and increase in the level of acceptance of entomopathogenic fungi and their products as an integral part of the integrated pest management programs, as well as potential adoption as an alternative to inorganic fertilizers and pesticides.

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References
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100 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00050-14
Abstract: All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions.

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Topics: Biotic component (51%)

1,225 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-018-05122-7
Lingfei Hu1, Christelle A. M. Robert1, Selma Cadot, Xi Zhang1  +9 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: By changing soil properties, plants can modify their growth environment. Although the soil microbiota is known to play a key role in the resulting plant-soil feedbacks, the proximal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. We found that benzoxazinoids, a class of defensive secondary metabolites that are released by roots of cereals such as wheat and maize, alter root-associated fungal and bacterial communities, decrease plant growth, increase jasmonate signaling and plant defenses, and suppress herbivore performance in the next plant generation. Complementation experiments demonstrate that the benzoxazinoid breakdown product 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), which accumulates in the soil during the conditioning phase, is both sufficient and necessary to trigger the observed phenotypic changes. Sterilization, fungal and bacterial profiling and complementation experiments reveal that MBOA acts indirectly by altering root-associated microbiota. Our results reveal a mechanism by which plants determine the composition of rhizosphere microbiota, plant performance and plant-herbivore interactions of the next generation.

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383 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-018-35648-1
26 Nov 2018-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Multiferroic materials have attracted considerable attention as possible candidates for a wide variety of future microelectronic and memory devices, although robust magnetoelectric (ME) coupling between electric and magnetic orders at room temperature still remains difficult to achieve. In order to obtain robust ME coupling at room temperature, we studied the Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3/Ni0.65Zn0.35Fe2O4/Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 (PFN/NZFO/PFN) trilayer structure as a representative FE/FM/FE system. We report the ferroelectric, magnetic and ME properties of PFN/NZFO/PFN trilayer nanoscale heterostructure having dimensions 70/20/70 nm, at room temperature. The presence of only (00l) reflection of PFN and NZFO in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and electron diffraction patterns in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirm the epitaxial growth of multilayer heterostructure. The distribution of the ferroelectric loop area in a wide area has been studied, suggesting that spatial variability of ferroelectric switching behavior is low, and film growth is of high quality. The ferroelectric and magnetic phase transitions of these heterostructures have been found at ~575 K and ~650 K, respectively which are well above room temperature. These nanostructures exhibit low loss tangent, large saturation polarization (Ps ~ 38 µC/cm2) and magnetization (Ms ~ 48 emu/cm3) with strong ME coupling at room temperature revealing them as potential candidates for nanoscale multifunctional and spintronics device applications.

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Topics: Ferroelectricity (52%), Magnetization (52%), Spintronics (50%) ... show more

345 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPLS.2013.00120
Birgit Mitter1, Alexandra Petric1, Maria W. Shin2, Patrick Chain2  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a naturally occurring plant-associated bacterial endophyte that effectively colonizes a wide range of plants and stimulates their growth and vitality. Here we analyze whole genomes, of PsJN and of eight other endophytic bacteria. This study illustrates that a wide spectrum of endophytic life styles exists. Although we postulate the existence of typical endophytic traits, no unique gene cluster could be exclusively linked to the endophytic lifestyle. Furthermore, our study revealed a high genetic diversity among bacterial endophytes as reflected in their genotypic and phenotypic features. B. phytofirmans PsJN is in many aspects outstanding among the selected endophytes. It has the biggest genome consisting of two chromosomes and one plasmid, well equipped with genes for the degradation of complex organic compounds and detoxification, e.g. 24 glutathione-S-transferase genes. Furthermore, strain PsJN has a high number of cell surface signaling and secretion systems and harbors the 3-OH-PAME quorum-sensing system that coordinates the switch of free-living to the symbiotic lifestyle in the plant-pathogen R. solanacearum. The ability of B. phytofirmans PsJN to successfully colonize such a wide variety of plant species might be based on its large genome harboring a broad range of physiological functions.

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181 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS19040952
Abstract: There has been many recent studies on the use of microbial antagonists to control diseases incited by soilborne and airborne plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, in an attempt to replace existing methods of chemical control and avoid extensive use of fungicides, which often lead to resistance in plant pathogens. In agriculture, plant growth-promoting and biocontrol microorganisms have emerged as safe alternatives to chemical pesticides. Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites may have great potential as excellent agents for controlling various fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Streptomycetes belong to the rhizosoil microbial communities and are efficient colonizers of plant tissues, from roots to the aerial parts. They are active producers of antibiotics and volatile organic compounds, both in soil and in planta, and this feature is helpful for identifying active antagonists of plant pathogens and can be used in several cropping systems as biocontrol agents. Additionally, their ability to promote plant growth has been demonstrated in a number of crops, thus inspiring the wide application of streptomycetes as biofertilizers to increase plant productivity. The present review highlights Streptomyces spp.-mediated functional traits, such as enhancement of plant growth and biocontrol of phytopathogens.

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Topics: Rhizobacteria (50%), Biofertilizer (50%)

181 Citations


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