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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Birefringence Analysis Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

15 Jun 2015-Vol. 9654, pp 965422

AbstractThe theory for interferometric analysis of an arbitrarily oriented birefringent sample is developed. The object is placed in one of the arms of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. Interferograms are recorded for vertically and horizontally polarized light passing through the sample. The spatial phase information for these two cases is suitably combined through an algorithm developed for this purpose to yield the complete spatial distribution of retardance and direction of birefringence over the sample plane. The proposed method is able to measure spatial variations of birefringence from 0 to π and is targeted to measurement of low birefringence as in biological specimens. Simulation results presented validate the proposed theory. Experimental results are forthcoming.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2021
Abstract: In this paper, we study the relationship of local birefringence and stress oriented inhomogeneous elasticity of a sample from the spatial frequency response of focused surface plasmon (FSP). The birefringence of the sample varies the propagation constant of surface plasmon with regard to its direction and produces an elliptic absorption pattern in the reflected spatial frequency distribution. Birefringence is calculated from the ratio of the propagation constant along the fast to slow axis of the sample. The change in eccentricity was proportional to the applied stress on cellophane film. A strong correlation (0.94∼0.97) exists between FSP and phase shifting interferometry results.

2 citations


Cites background from "Birefringence Analysis Using Mach-Z..."

  • ...However, determination of spatially varying retardance calls for special techniques [18,19,20]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Understanding of mechanistic details for an adsorption process for which conformational changes and ordering occur can be elucidated using DPI and greatly enhanced by modeling of optical birefringence.
Abstract: Supramolecular conformation and molecular orientation was monitored during supported lipid bilayer (SLB) formation using dual polarization interferometry (DPI). DPI was shown to enable real time sensitive determination of birefringence of the lipid bilayer together with thickness or refractive index (with the other a fixed value). This approach removes differences in mass loading due to anisotropy, so the mass becomes solely a function of the lipid dn/dc value. DPI measurements show highly reproducible qualitative and quantitative results for adsorption of liposomes of different lipid compositions and in buffers with or without CaCl2. The packing of solvent-free self-assembled SLBs is shown to differ from other preparation methods. Birefringence analysis accompanied by mass and thickness measurements shows characteristic features of vesicle adsorption and SLB formation kinetics previously not demonstrated by evanescent optical techniques, including indications of percolation-type rupture of clusters of li...

156 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A digital holographic microscope that permits one to image polarization state and the birefringence induced by internal stress in an optical fiber is measured and compared to a standard method, which had been developed to obtain high-resolution bireFringence profiles of optical fibers.
Abstract: We present a digital holographic microscope that permits one to image polarization state. This technique results from the coupling of digital holographic microscopy and polarization digital holography. The interference between two orthogonally polarized reference waves and the wave transmitted by a microscopic sample, magnified by a microscope objective, is recorded on a CCD camera. The off-axis geometry permits one to reconstruct separately from this single hologram two wavefronts that are used to image the object-wave Jones vector. We applied this technique to image the birefringence of a bent fiber. To evaluate the precision of the phase-difference measurement, the birefringence induced by internal stress in an optical fiber is measured and compared to the birefringence profile captured by a standard method, which had been developed to obtain high-resolution birefringence profiles of optical fibers.

114 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: PS-OCT showed promising for the study and diagnosis diseases related to abnormal fibrous tissues of the cornea and anterior eye segment related to glaucoma patients treated by trabeculectomy and keratoconus cases with advanced thinning and with a rupture of Descemet's membrane.
Abstract: We present a case series of cornea and anterior segment disorders investigated by an office-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Blebs of glaucoma patients treated by trabeculectomy, and corneas of keratoconus and keratoplasty patients were measured by PS-OCT. Birefringence formations in trabeculectomy bleb were measured in 1 control eye and 3 eyes of trabeculectomy model rabbits. Polarization insensitive scattering OCT and the depth-resolved birefringence were measured simultaneously by PS-OCT. Abnormal birefringence was observed in keratoconus cases with advanced thinning and with a rupture of Descemet’s membrane. The graft-host interface of the keratoplasty case showed abnormal birefringence. The appearance of abnormal birefringence in the cornea was likely to be an indication of cross-linking of collagen fibrils. The measurement of rabbit showed abnormal birefringence in the scarring eyes. Wide regions of strong birefringence were observed in the eyes of trabeculectomy patients who had high intraocular pressure. Visualization of scarring in bleb by PS-OCT may be useful for the planning of secondary surgery. PS-OCT showed promising for the study and diagnosis diseases related to abnormal fibrous tissues of the cornea and anterior eye segment.

62 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Multiple beam Fizeau fringes in transmission have been used to demonstrate and to measure the radial change of the refractive index and the related induced birefringence in the cladding of bent single-mode fibres to an accuracy of .

25 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...where t a n δ = ( t a n ( δ / 2 ) ) ( c o s ( 2 - θ ) ) / c o s θ ) x φ (2)...

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  • ...Subtracting equations (2) & (3) we have, [ ][ ] [ ][ ] tan tan tan( / 2) (cos(2 ) / cos ) (sin(2 ) / sin ) tan( / 2) (2cos(2 2 ) / sin 2 x y δ δ δ φ θ θ φ θ θ δ φ θ θ − = − − − = − (5)...

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  • ...(2) and (3) we have, [ ][ ] [ ][ ] tan tan tan( / 2) (cos(2 ) / cos ) (sin(2 ) / sin ) tan( / 2) (2 sin(2 ) / sin 2 x y δ δ δ φ θ θ φ θ θ δ φ θ + = − + − = (4)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Jun 1996
Abstract: A method is presented for measuring modal birefringence and polarization mode dispersion in highly birefringent fibers. The method employs the principle of white-light interferometry for dispersion measurement, and classical coherent interferometry for birefringence measurement. The key parts of the measuring system are a Wollaston prism made of crystalline quartz used as a shearing type interferometer and a set of quartz delay plates for compensation of retardations up to 1000/spl lambda/ introduced by the tested fibers. The interferometer is combined with a CCD camera and with a processing system allowing for convenient measurement data acquisition and handling.

19 citations