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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41561-021-00809-X

Birth of a large volcanic edifice offshore Mayotte via lithosphere-scale dyke intrusion

02 Mar 2021-Nature Geoscience (EarthArXiv)-Vol. 14, Iss: 10, pp 787-795
Abstract: Volcanic eruptions shape Earth’s surface and provide a window into deep Earth processes. How the primary asthenospheric melts form, pond and ascend through the lithosphere is, however, still poorly understood. Since 10 May 2018, magmatic activity has occurred offshore eastern Mayotte (North Mozambique channel), associated with large surface displacements, very-low-frequency earthquakes and exceptionally deep earthquake swarms. Here we present geophysical and marine data from the MAYOBS1 cruise, which reveal that by May 2019, this activity formed an 820-m-tall, ~5 km³ volcanic edifice on the seafloor. This is the largest active submarine eruption ever documented. Seismic and deformation data indicate that deep (>55 km depth) magma reservoirs were rapidly drained through dykes that intruded the entire lithosphere and that pre-existing subvertical faults in the mantle were reactivated beneath an ancient caldera structure. We locate the new volcanic edifice at the tip of a 50-km-long ridge composed of many other recent edifices and lava flows. This volcanic ridge is an extensional feature inside a wide transtensional boundary that transfers strain between the East African and Madagascar rifts. We propose that the massive eruption originated from hot asthenosphere at the base of a thick, old, damaged lithosphere.

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Topics: Submarine eruption (59%), Asthenosphere (59%), Caldera (59%) ... show more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GJI/GGAB392
Jean-Marie Saurel1, Eric Jacques1, Chastity Aiken2, Anne Lemoine  +58 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Summary The brutal onset of seismicity offshore Mayotte island North of the Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean, that occurred in May 2018 caught the population, authorities, and scientific community off guard. Around 20 potentially felt earthquakes were recorded in the first 5 days, up to magnitude Mw 5.9. The scientific community had little pre-existing knowledge of the seismic activity in the region due to poor seismic network coverage. During 2018 and 2019, the MAYOBS/REVOSIMA seismology group was progressively built between four French research institutions to improve instrumentation and data sets to monitor what we know now as an on-going exceptional sub-marine basaltic eruption. After the addition of 3 medium-band stations on Mayotte island and 1 on Grande Glorieuse island in early 2019, the data recovered from the Ocean Bottom Seismometers were regularly processed by the group to improve the location of the earthquakes detected daily by the land network. We first built a new local 1D velocity model and established specific data processing procedures. The local 1.66 low VP/VS ratio we estimated is compatible with a volcanic island context. We manually picked about 125,000 P and S phases on land and sea bottom stations to locate more than 5,000 events between February 2019 and May 2020. The earthquakes outline two separate seismic clusters offshore that we named Proximal and Distal. The Proximal cluster, located 10km offshore Mayotte eastern coastlines, is 20 to 50 km deep and has a cylindrical shape. The Distal cluster start 5 km to the east of the Proximal cluster and extends below Mayotte's new volcanic edifice, from 50 km up to 25 km depth. The two clusters appear seismically separated, however our dataset is insufficient to firmly demonstrate this.

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Topics: Seismometer (52%), Population (51%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JAFREARSCI.2021.104379
Abstract: Starting in May 2018, a volcano-tectonic crisis occurred in the vicinity of Mayotte, a volcanic island in the Comoros Archipelago in the Mozambique Channel. The origin of the volcanism but also the subsurface architecture and nature of the crust, remain unknown. Here, based on receiver function analyses that provide S-wave velocity profiles, we determine the depth of Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) and V P /V S ratios for volcanic islands in the Mozambique Channel. We propose that the crust beneath Mayotte and Juan de Nova islands is of continental nature, while it appears to be of oceanic origin beneath Europa and Grande Glorieuse islands. Our results suggest that Mayotte edifice grew on an isolated continental block abandoned during the Gondwana breakup and the opening of the Mozambique Channel. The continental crust is underlain by a thick (9-10 km) and fast layer, interpreted as magmatic underplating which may result from the 20-Myr-long duration of the volcanism. The new velocity model determined from the seismic station on Mayotte can be used to relocate the seismicity related to the ongoing volcano-tectonic crisis.

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Topics: Continental crust (59%), Magmatic underplating (56%), Mohorovičić discontinuity (55%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JVOLGEORES.2021.107395
Océane Foix1, Chastity Aiken1, Jean-Marie Saurel2, Mayobs  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A new submarine volcano has been discovered offshore Mayotte, a part of the Comoros volcanic archipelago located between Africa and Madagascar. The edifice arose from the sea-floor following a seismo-volcanic crisis that started in May 2018. This seismo-volcanic activity highlights very deep magma reservoirs and dykes in the East Mayotte volcanic system. Since the crisis, the region has experienced >2000 earthquakes with magnitude ≥3.5 and activity continues today (August 17, 2021). The earthquakes are unusually deep and distributed into two swarms: one 5–15 km east of Petite-Terre at 25–55 km depth and a second 25 km away at 30–50 km depth. Significant subsidence of Mayotte to the East has been assigned to the drainage of a deep magma chamber, inferred to be located 30 km from the coast. However, at present, the earthquake locations and geodetic observations have not been sufficient to image entirely the structure of the volcanic plumbing system. In this study, we construct Vp, Vs, dVp, dVs and Vp/Vs 3D velocity models to assess the deeper structure of the young volcano plumbing system, offshore and East of Mayotte. Using >3000 earthquakes from an ongoing monitoring effort, and a 1D velocity model determined onboard, we jointly inverted for velocity structures, earthquake locations, origin times, and station corrections using LOTOS software. The calculated 3D velocity models highlight a complex volcanic system down to 40 km depth. Specifically, we image 3 interpreted reservoirs, more or less consolidated/old. The main reservoir is located at about 30 km depth and deeper, making it one of the deepest magmatic chamber imaged. The reservoirs are connected by several old crystallized conduits, whose existence could have been influenced by the presence of an old fracture zone, globally oriented N130°, due to a regional strike-slip motion of the lithosphere. Moreover, gas-saturated rock may be present below the currently degassing Horse Shoe structure. We were unable to image connections between the new volcanic edifice and reservoirs or conduits due to a lack of resolution in that part of the study area.

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Topics: Submarine volcano (55%), Magma chamber (55%), Volcano (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.QUAGEO.2021.101236
Xavier Quidelleur1, Laurent Michon2, Laurent Michon3, Vincent Famin3  +7 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: The Comoros archipelago has attracted renewed attention since 2018 due to the submarine volcano growing east of the island of Mayotte and the associated ongoing seismic crisis. However, the origin of Comorian magmatism remains controversial, as it is either interpreted as related to a hotspot trail, to a fracture zone, or to a plate boundary. Lying in the central part of the archipelago, Anjouan is a key island to better understand the relationship between volcanism and geodynamics. Together with a careful selection of published whole-rock K–Ar ages, our new set of 13 groundmass K–Ar ages on lava flows and one radiocarbon age on a charcoal from a strombolian deposit, allow us to reassess the volcano-tectonic evolution of Anjouan Island. New groundmass K–Ar ages lie within the last 1 Ma, i.e. from 899 ± 14 to 11 ± 1 ka. They suggest that most of the subaerial volcanism in Anjouan is much younger than previously inferred, and occurred as pulses at 900–750 ka, perhaps 530 ka, 230–290 ka, and since 60 ka, with erosional periods in between. Among our new data, one 14C age of 7513–7089 yrs calBCE (9.3 ± 0.2 ka) and five K–Ar ages younger than 60 ka show that recent volcanism occurred in Anjouan. Moreover, the concentration of eruptive vents along a N150° alignment, parallel to the maximum horizontal stress, suggests a strong link between regional tectonics and volcanism. Considering the presence of active volcanoes on both the western and eastern extremities of the Comoros archipelago, our discovery of Holocene activity on Anjouan provides strong arguments against a chronological progression of volcanism along the archipelago, and therefore contradicts the hotspot hypothesis for the origin of volcanism. Finally, this study provides a robust geochronological timeframe of the different volcanic stages of Anjouan. It demonstrates that Anjouan is an active island and suggests that volcanism and tectonics can both resume at any time.

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Topics: Archipelago (54%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/PT.3.4875
01 Nov 2021-Physics Today
Abstract: Geophysical and oceanographic observations establish how a deep magma chamber fueled an extraordinary eruption.

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Topics: Magma chamber (62%), Volcano (54%)

References
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81 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCSE.2007.55
Abstract: Matplotlib is a 2D graphics package used for Python for application development, interactive scripting,and publication-quality image generation across user interfaces and operating systems

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Topics: 2D computer graphics (56%), Computer graphics (55%), Python (programming language) (54%) ... show more

16,056 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/98EO00426
Paul Wessel1, Walter H. F. Smith2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Version 31 of the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) has been released More than 6000 scientists worldwide are currently using this free, public domain collection of UNIX tools that contains programs serving a variety of research functions GMT allows users to manipulate (x,y) and (x,y,z) data, and generate PostScript illustrations, including simple x-y diagrams, contour maps, color images, and artificially illuminated, perspective, and/or shaded-relief plots using a variety of map projections (see Wessel and Smith [1991] and Wessel and Smith [1995], for details) GMT has been installed under UNIX on most types of workstations and both IBM-compatible and Macintosh personal computers

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Topics: Unix (52%)

6,358 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2649-2
16 Sep 2020-Nature
Abstract: Array programming provides a powerful, compact and expressive syntax for accessing, manipulating and operating on data in vectors, matrices and higher-dimensional arrays. NumPy is the primary array programming library for the Python language. It has an essential role in research analysis pipelines in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience, biology, psychology, materials science, engineering, finance and economics. For example, in astronomy, NumPy was an important part of the software stack used in the discovery of gravitational waves1 and in the first imaging of a black hole2. Here we review how a few fundamental array concepts lead to a simple and powerful programming paradigm for organizing, exploring and analysing scientific data. NumPy is the foundation upon which the scientific Python ecosystem is constructed. It is so pervasive that several projects, targeting audiences with specialized needs, have developed their own NumPy-like interfaces and array objects. Owing to its central position in the ecosystem, NumPy increasingly acts as an interoperability layer between such array computation libraries and, together with its application programming interface (API), provides a flexible framework to support the next decade of scientific and industrial analysis. NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

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Topics: NumPy (70%), Array programming (60%), Python (programming language) (59%) ... show more

2,681 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PEPI.2012.04.002
Abstract: Earthquake moment tensors reflecting seven years of global seismic activity (2004–2010) are presented. The results are the product of the global centroid-moment-tensor (GCMT) project, which maintains and extends a catalog of global seismic moment tensors beginning with earthquakes in 1976. Starting with earthquakes in 2004, the GCMT analysis takes advantage of advances in the mapping of propagation characteristics of intermediate-period surface waves, and includes these waves in the moment-tensor inversions. This modification of the CMT algorithm makes possible the globally uniform determination of moment tensors for earthquakes as small as MW = 5.0. For the period 2004–2010, 13,017 new centroid-moment tensors are reported.

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Topics: Seismic moment (55%), Moment (mathematics) (50%)

1,576 Citations