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Journal ArticleDOI

Black Children With Developmental Disabilities Receive Less Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention Than Their White Peers: Preliminary Evidence of Racial Disparities From a Secondary Data Analysis

07 Sep 2022-Vol. 31, Iss: 5, pp 2159-2174
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigated the evidence for racial disparities in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention services for children with complex communication needs and found that 75% of the Black children were receiving less than 60 min of AAC intervention per week, an inadequate amount to achieve meaningful gains given their significant disabilities.
Abstract: Purpose: Ensuring equitable access to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention services for children with complex communication needs (CCN) is crucial. Evidence suggests that racial disparities exist in access to communication interventions, disadvantaging Black children. However, no research has investigated specifically the evidence for racial disparities in AAC services for children with developmental disabilities and CCN. Method: The current study applied post hoc data analysis methods within a preexisting, open-access data set to explore preliminary evidence of racial disparities in AAC intervention. Amount of AAC intervention was compared for Black versus white 1 preschool students at study initiation ( M age = 3;8 [years;months]) and 2 years later at study completion ( M age = 5;10). Results: Black preschool students were reported to receive significantly less AAC intervention per week as compared to their white peers, both at study initiation and 2 years later. By study end, 75% of the Black children were receiving less than 60 min of AAC intervention per week, an inadequate amount to achieve meaningful gains given their significant disabilities. Conclusions: It is unclear what mechanisms may contribute to the observed disparities; however, it is critical that concrete steps are taken by individual speech-language pathologists, school districts, preservice preparation programs, and researchers to identify inequities in AAC services and take actions to rectify them. Future research is essential to investigate the potential factors contributing to inequalities and determine effective interventions to address them.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Jacob Cohen1
TL;DR: A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is providedHere the sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests.
Abstract: One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.

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Abstract: The gap in achievement across racial and ethnic groups has been a focus of education research for decades, but the disproportionate suspension and expulsion of Black, Latino, and American Indian students has received less attention. This article synthesizes research on racial and ethnic patterns in school sanctions and considers how disproportionate discipline might contribute to lagging achievement among students of color. It further examines the evidence for student, school, and community contributors to the racial and ethnic patterns in school sanctions, and it offers promising directions for gap-reducing discipline policies and practices.

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TL;DR: Regression analysis indicated that although early language ability appeared to be related to outcome in the Autism group, there was little association between any measures of childhood functioning and prognosis in the Language group, and these findings have implications for the understanding of the nature of autism and other pervasive language disorders.
Abstract: This paper focuses on general social functioning in two groups of young men, one with autism and one with developmental receptive language disorders, who were first assessed at the ages of 7-8 years. At that time, although matched for nonverbal IQ (mean 92-93) and expressive language, the Language group showed significantly fewer social and behavioural problems. At follow-up, when aged on average, 23 to 24 years, the Autism group continued to show significantly more impairments in terms of stereotyped behaviour patterns, social relationships, jobs, and independence. However, problems in all these areas were also common in the Language group. Many still lived with their parents, few had close friends or permanent jobs, and ratings of social interaction indicated abnormalities in a number of different areas. On a composite measure of social competence only 10% of the Language group was assessed as having severe social difficulties compared to 74% of the Autism group. Nevertheless, 65% were rated as having moderate social problems and only 25% were rated as being of near/normal social functioning. Two individuals in the Language group, but none in the Autism group, had also developed a florid paranoid psychosis in late adolescence. As in the follow-up of cognitive and linguistic functioning (see Mawhood et al., 2000, this volume, pp. 547-559), discriminant function analysis, which had clearly distinguished between the groups as children, now showed much greater overlap between them. Regression analysis indicated that although early language ability appeared to be related to outcome in the Autism group, there was little association between any measures of childhood functioning and prognosis in the Language group. Theoretically, these findings have implications for our understanding of the nature of autism and other pervasive language disorders, and of the relationship between them. Practically, they demonstrate the very persistent problems experienced by individuals with developmental language disorders, and their need for much greater help and support than is presently available.

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TL;DR: Disparities in service use associated with race, residence and education point to the need to develop policy, practice and family-level interventions that can address barriers to services for children with ASD.
Abstract: This paper identifies family characteristics associated with use of autism-related services. A telephone or in-person survey was completed during 2003–2005 by 383 North Carolina families with a child 11 years old or younger with ASD. Access to care is limited for racial and ethnic minority families, with low parental education, living in nonmetropolitan areas, and not following a major treatment approach. Service use is more likely when parents have higher stress. Families use a broad array of services; the mix varies with child ASD diagnosis and age group. Disparities in service use associated with race, residence and education point to the need to develop policy, practice and family-level interventions that can address barriers to services for children with ASD.

349 citations