Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas
01 Jan 2001-
TL;DR: In this article, Rice origins and Indigenous knowledge are discussed and out of Africa: Rice Culture and African Continuities 4 This Was "Woman's Wuck" 5 African Rice and the Atlantic World 6 Legacies Notes References Index
Abstract: Preface Introduction 1 Encounters 2 Rice Origins and Indigenous Knowledge 3 Out of Africa: Rice Culture and African Continuities 4 This Was "Woman's Wuck" 5 African Rice and the Atlantic World 6 Legacies Notes References Index
TL;DR: The overall time required to domesticate a species has decreased since the earliest domestication events, and the frequencies of some domestication syndrome traits have decreased over time, while others have increased.
Abstract: Contents Summary 29 I. Introduction 30 II. Key concepts and definitions 30 III. Methods of review and analysis 35 IV. Trends identified from the review of 203 crops 37 V. Life cycle 38 VI. Ploidy level 40 VII. Reproductive strategies 42 VIII. The domestication syndrome 42 IX. Spatial and temporal trends 42 X. Utilization of plant parts 44 XI. Conclusions 44 Acknowledgements 45 References 45 Summary Domesticated food crops are derived from a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of wild ancestors through artificial selection for different traits. Our understanding of domestication, however, is based upon a subset of well-studied ‘model’ crops, many of them from the Poaceae family. Here, we investigate domestication traits and theories using a broader range of crops. We reviewed domestication information (e.g. center of domestication, plant traits, wild ancestors, domestication dates, domestication traits, early and current uses) for 203 major and minor food crops. Compiled data were used to test classic and contemporary theories in crop domestication. Many typical features of domestication associated with model crops, including changes in ploidy level, loss of shattering, multiple origins, and domestication outside the native range, are less common within this broader dataset. In addition, there are strong spatial and temporal trends in our dataset. The overall time required to domesticate a species has decreased since the earliest domestication events. The frequencies of some domestication syndrome traits (e.g. nonshattering) have decreased over time, while others (e.g. changes to secondary metabolites) have increased. We discuss the influences of the ecological, evolutionary, cultural and technological factors that make domestication a dynamic and ongoing process.
TL;DR: A critical review of how place, scale, and networks are used as metaphors for the spatiality of globalization suggests that space/time still matters as discussed by the authors, and the inclusion of positionality challenges the simplicity of pro-and antiglobalization narratives and can...
Abstract: Discussions of the spatiality of globalization have largely focused on place-based attributes that fix globalization locally, on globalization as the construction of scale, and on networks as a distinctive feature of contemporary globalization. By contrast, position within the global economy is frequently regarded as anachronistic in a shrinking, networked world. A critical review of how place, scale, and networks are used as metaphors for the spatiality of globalization suggests that space/time still matters. Positionality (position in relational space/time within the global economy) is conceptualized as both shaping and shaped by the trajectories of globalization and as influencing the conditions of possibility of places in a globalizing world. The wormhole is invoked as a way of describing the concrete geographies of positionality and their non-Euclidean relationship to the Earth’s surface. The inclusion of positionality challenges the simplicity of pro- and antiglobalization narratives and can...
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore whiteness by addressing the spatial dimensions of food politics and demonstrate how whiteness is produced in progressive non-pro-wt eVorts to promote sustainable farming and food security in the US.
University of Arizona1, Dow AgroSciences2, Wayne State University3, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies4, University of Pisa5, Chinese Academy of Sciences6, Africa Rice Center7, University of Chicago8, University of California, Los Angeles9, Institut de recherche pour le développement10, University of Zurich11, University of Maryland, College Park12
TL;DR: Evidence for artificial selection at a genome-wide scale, as well as with a set of O. glaberrima genes orthologous to O. sativa genes that are known to be associated with domestication, is detected, indicating convergent yet independent selection of a common set of genes during two geographically and culturally distinct domestication processes.
Abstract: The cultivation of rice in Africa dates back more than 3,000 years. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary history of domestication and selection. Population genomics analyses of 20 O. glaberrima and 94 Oryza barthii accessions support the hypothesis that O. glaberrima was domesticated in a single region along the Niger river as opposed to noncentric domestication events across Africa. We detected evidence for artificial selection at a genome-wide scale, as well as with a set of O. glaberrima genes orthologous to O. sativa genes that are known to be associated with domestication, thus indicating convergent yet independent selection of a common set of genes during two geographically and culturally distinct domestication processes.
TL;DR: Water has become an urgent theme in anthropology as the worldwide need to provide adequate supplies of clean water to all people becomes more challenging as discussed by the authors, and anthropologists contribute by seeing water not only as a resource, but also as a substance that connects many realms of social life.
Abstract: Water has become an urgent theme in anthropology as the worldwide need to provide adequate supplies of clean water to all people becomes more challenging. Anthropologists contribute by seeing water not only as a resource, but also as a substance that connects many realms of social life. They trace the different forms of valuing water, examine the often unequal distribution of water, explore the rules and institutions that govern water use and shape water politics, and study the multiple, often conflicting knowledge systems through which actors understand water. They offer ethnographic insights into key water sites—watersheds, water regimes, and waterscapes—found in all settings, though with widely varying characteristics. Anthropologists provide a critical examination of a concept called integrated water resource management (IWRM), which has become hegemonic in the global discourse of sustainable development.
TL;DR: Wolf as discussed by the authors, Europe and the People Without History 1982 Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA. and New York: Random House, New York.
Abstract: Eric R. Wolf Europe and the People Without History 1982 Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
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