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Journal Article

Blacks, Gun Cultures, and Gun Control: T.R.M. Howard, Armed Self-Defense, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi

01 Jan 2005-Journal on firearms and public policy (Second Amendment Foundation)-Vol. 17, Iss: 1
TL;DR: Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard as discussed by the authors was a leading civil rights activists and businessman in Mississippi in the mid-twentieth century, having grown up in the gun culture, he armed himself for self-defense against racist, helping to set a pattern of affirmative self defense which was followed by other civil rights leaders.
Abstract: T.R.M. Howard was a leading civil rights activists and businessman in Mississippi in the mid-twentieth century. Having grown up in the gun culture, he armed himself for self-defense against racist, helping to set a pattern of affirmative self-defense which was followed by other civil rights leaders. Few blacks in Mississippi were more assertive in confronting Jim Crow and disfranchisement in the 1950s than Dr. Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard. When he spoke out, it was hard to ignore him. Howard was not only one of the wealthiest blacks in the state but headed the largest civil organization in the Delta. In honor of his efforts, The California Eagle called him the "Most Hated, and Best Loved, Man in Mississippi." From the beginning, armed self-defense was an important component of Howard’s civil rights strategy. In this respect, he followed in a long tradition that later found expression under the leadership of Robert Williams in Monroe, North Carolina, and various civil rights activists in the Deep South in the 1960s who relied on the often interrelated strategies of "God, Gandhi, and Guns."
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Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Exploring the history and impact of fraternal societies in the United States, David Beito uncovers the vital importance they had in the social and fiscal lives of millions of American families.
Abstract: During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, more Americans belonged to fraternal societies than to any other kind of voluntary association, with the possible exception of churches. Despite the stereotypical image of the lodge as the exclusive domain of white men, fraternalism cut across race, class, and gender lines to include women, African Americans, and immigrants. Exploring the history and impact of fraternal societies in the United States, David Beito uncovers the vital importance they had in the social and fiscal lives of millions of American families. Much more than a means of addressing deep-seated cultural, psychological, and gender needs, fraternal societies gave Americans a way to provide themselves with social-welfare services that would otherwise have been inaccessible, Beito argues. In addition to creating vast social and mutual aid networks among the poor and in the working class, they made affordable life and health insurance available to their members and established hospitals, orphanages, and homes for the elderly. Fraternal societies continued their commitment to mutual aid even into the early years of the Great Depression, Beito says, but changing cultural attitudes and the expanding welfare state eventually propelled their decline. |David Beito's book establishes the enormous impact of fraternal societies on the social lives and fiscal circumstances of millions of Americans between 1890 and 1967. In addition to creating vast social and mutual aid networks for the poor and the working class, fraternal organizations offered insurance policies to members and established hospitals, orphanages, and homes for the elderly.

122 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Beito examines the means by which fraternal organizations provided insurance beneats and other social welfare services to their members, including women and African-Americans, in the transition to the welfare state.
Abstract: Fraternal organizations, both familiar ones such as the Elks and Moose, and less familiar ones, like Ladies of the Maccabees or the Workmen’s Circle, played a number of important roles in nineteenthand twentieth-century American society. Skocpol and other social scientists have argued persuasively that these organizations provided important sites for a vibrant, cross-class civic life.1 In this book, Beito examines the means by which these societies provided insurance beneats and other socialwelfare services to their members. The Freemasons and similar societies had provided sickness and funeral beneats to members since preRevolutionary times, and developed a strong presence in United States cities during the latter part of the nineteenth century. During this period, both local and national benevolent societies and life-insurance orders provided both social functions and a “safety net” for many working people, including immigrants, laborers, and many African-Americans. Beito arst describes the values and goals of these organizations. He examines in detail the operation of two orphanages (run by the Loyal Order of Moose and the Security Beneat Association [sba]), the provision of medical services by organizations to their members (referred to as “lodge practice”), and the history of two black fraternal-run hospitals in rural Mississippi. He also details the debates and controversies surrounding the moves of the federal and state governments toward increasing regulation of insurance and health care, as well as the effects that these changes had on the fraternal organizations’ functions. From Mutual Aid to the Welfare State is a fascinating window into these efforts by various organizations to provide “cradle to grave” help and support to their members. Beito argues convincingly about how important for women and blacks the opportunity to learn entrepreneurial, anancial, and leadership skills was. He also offers evidence to counter the argument that fraternal organizations, like public and private charities, imposed middle-class values on the poor, by focusing on the extent to which those values (for example, self-reliance, thrift, self-control, mutual aid, and patriotism) were shared also by working-class organizations. The book is less satisfying as a comprehensive picture of the role that fraternal associations played in the transition to the welfare state. Beito’s methodology—in particular, his criteria for choosing organizations to study and the small number that he analyzes in depth—is not clearly outlined. It is difacult, for example, to evaluate his claims that societies were less exclusive and selective than is sometimes assumed without more demonstrations of the generalizability of his descriptions of the REVIEWS | 337

127 citations

Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Exploring the history and impact of fraternal societies in the United States, David Beito uncovers the vital importance they had in the social and fiscal lives of millions of American families.
Abstract: During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, more Americans belonged to fraternal societies than to any other kind of voluntary association, with the possible exception of churches. Despite the stereotypical image of the lodge as the exclusive domain of white men, fraternalism cut across race, class, and gender lines to include women, African Americans, and immigrants. Exploring the history and impact of fraternal societies in the United States, David Beito uncovers the vital importance they had in the social and fiscal lives of millions of American families. Much more than a means of addressing deep-seated cultural, psychological, and gender needs, fraternal societies gave Americans a way to provide themselves with social-welfare services that would otherwise have been inaccessible, Beito argues. In addition to creating vast social and mutual aid networks among the poor and in the working class, they made affordable life and health insurance available to their members and established hospitals, orphanages, and homes for the elderly. Fraternal societies continued their commitment to mutual aid even into the early years of the Great Depression, Beito says, but changing cultural attitudes and the expanding welfare state eventually propelled their decline. |David Beito's book establishes the enormous impact of fraternal societies on the social lives and fiscal circumstances of millions of Americans between 1890 and 1967. In addition to creating vast social and mutual aid networks for the poor and the working class, fraternal organizations offered insurance policies to members and established hospitals, orphanages, and homes for the elderly.

122 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Cottrol et al. as discussed by the authors presented a paper at the 1990 annual meeting of the American Society for Legal History, at the Harvard Legal History Forum, at a faculty seminar at Northwestern University Law School, and at the 1991 joint conference of the Law and Society Association and the International Law & Society Association.
Abstract: © Copyright Robert J. Cottrol and Raymond T. Diamond, 1991. This article was delivered as a paper at the 1990 annual meeting of the American Society for Legal History, at the Harvard Legal History Forum, at a faculty seminar at Northwestern University Law School, at the 1991 joint annual meeting of the Law and Society Association and the International Law and Society Association, and at the 1991 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. The authors would like to acknowledge the helpful comments made in those forums. The authors would like to acknowledge the research assistance of Jan McNitt, Boston College Law School, 1991; Richard J. Fraher, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law, 1993; Roderick C. Sanchez, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law, 1992; Adrienne I. Logan, Tulane University School of Law, 1992; and Willie E. Shepard, Tulane University School of Law, 1992. This paper has benefitted from the criticism and helpful comments of Akhil R. Amar, Michael Les Benedict, Barbara Black, Maxwell Bloomfield, Ruth Colker, Michael Curtis, Robert Dowlut, Kermit Hall, Natalie Hull, Don B. Kates, Jr., Barbara K. Kopytoff, Sanford Levinson, Joyce Lee Malcolm, John Stick, and Robert F. Williams. The authors would also like to acknowledge summer research grants from Boston College Law School, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law, and Tulane University School of Law which contributed to the writing of this paper. ** Associate Professor, Rutgers (Camden) School of Law. A.B. 1971, Ph.D. 1978, Yale University; J.D. 1984, Georgetown University Law Center. *** Associate Professor, Tulane University School of Law. A.B. 1973, Yale University; J.D. 1977, Yale Law School. [Copyright © 1991 Georgetown Law Journal, Robert J. Cottrol & Raymond T. Diamond. Originally published as 80 GEO. L.J. 1991, 309-361 (1991). For educational use only. The printed edition remains canonical. For citational use please obtain a back issue from William S. Hein & Co., 1285 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14209; 716-882-2600 or 800-828-7571.]

56 citations