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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15563650.2020.1787429

Blood concentrations of synthetic cannabinoids

04 Mar 2021-Clinical Toxicology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 59, Iss: 3, pp 246-251
Abstract: Introduction: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the largest and most diverse group of new psychoactive substances. Their influence on organism is unpredictable and often lead to intoxications, inclu...

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Topics: Synthetic cannabinoids (55%), Poison control (52%)

11 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15563650.2020.1848100
Abstract: Synthetic cathinones are the second most frequently seized group of new psychoactive substances. They are sold as replacements for controlled stimulants such as amphetamine, cocaine and MDMA. Synth...

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Topics: MDMA (53%)

5 Citations

Open accessBook
27 Oct 2020-
Topics: Neuropathology (64%), Substance abuse (55%)

4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00213-021-05768-0
26 Jan 2021-Psychopharmacology
Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the largest class of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and are associated with an increased risk of overdosing and adverse events such as psychosis. JWH-018 is one of the earliest SCs and still widely available in large parts of the world. Controlled studies to assess the safety and behavioural profiles of SCs are extremely scarce. The current study was designed to assess the psychotomimetic effects of a moderate dose of JWH-018. Twenty-four healthy participants (10 males, 14 females) entered a placebo-controlled, double blind, within-subjects trial and inhaled vapour of placebo or 75μg/kg bodyweight JWH-018. To ascertain a minimum level of intoxication, a booster dose of JWH-018 was administered on an as-needed basis. The average dose of JWH-018 administered was 5.52 mg. Subjective high, dissociative states (CADSS), psychedelic symptoms (Bowdle), mood (POMS) and cannabis reinforcement (SCRQ) were assessed within a 4.5-h time window after drug administration. JWH-018 caused psychedelic effects, such as altered internal and external perception, and dissociative effects, such as amnesia, derealisation and depersonalisation and induced feelings of confusion. Overall, these findings suggest that a moderate dose of JWH-018 induces pronounced psychotomimetic symptoms in healthy participants with no history of mental illness, which confirms that SCs pose a serious risk for public health.

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Topics: Psychotomimetic (56%)

2 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11419-021-00581-Y
Abstract: There has been a global increase in the number and availability of new psychoactive substances (NPS) belonging to the benzodiazepine class. New benzodiazepines are much more dangerous to health and life than pharmaceutical benzodiazepines. These substances have been associated with many deaths. Interpreting own results usually requires a comparison to previously published cases; therefore, a referenced compilation of previously published concentration data would be useful. The data collection was based on a search of PubMed, Scopus, and Google search engine. All available data from articles and reports that measured new benzodiazepine concentrations in plasma, serum, or whole blood were included in the data analysis. The presented tables list the observed concentrations in fatal and nonfatal cases involving 13 NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine class. The interpretation of the concentrations of the NPS belonging to the benzodiazepine class is difficult. Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and other drugs as well as other factors often contribute to toxic effects or deaths in real cases. This report enables quick access to the source articles quantifying new benzodiazepines.

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1 Citations

Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-60531-5_4
Andreas Büttner1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Cannabis is the most frequently abused recreational drug worldwide. Its major psychoactive component, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), interacts with specific cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the brain. Until today distinct neuropathological alterations have not been described.

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Topics: Recreational Drug (57%), Cannabinoid (54%), Cannabis (52%)


107 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DRUGALCDEP.2014.08.005
Abstract: Background Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are a heterogeneous group of compounds developed to probe the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutics. Clandestine laboratories subsequently utilized published data to develop SC variations marketed as abusable designer drugs. In the early 2000s, SC became popular as "legal highs" under brand names such as Spice and K2, in part due to their ability to escape detection by standard cannabinoid screening tests. The majority of SC detected in herbal products have greater binding affinity to the cannabinoid CB1 receptor than does Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in the cannabis plant, and greater affinity at the CB1 than the CB2 receptor. In vitro and animal in vivo studies show SC pharmacological effects 2-100 times more potent than THC, including analgesic, anti-seizure, weight-loss, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer growth effects. SC produce physiological and psychoactive effects similar to THC, but with greater intensity, resulting in medical and psychiatric emergencies. Human adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath or depressed breathing, hypertension, tachycardia, chest pain, muscle twitches, acute renal failure, anxiety, agitation, psychosis, suicidal ideation, and cognitive impairment. Long-term or residual effects are unknown. Due to these public health consequences, many SC are classified as controlled substances. However, frequent structural modification by clandestine laboratories results in a stream of novel SC that may not be legally controlled or detectable by routine laboratory tests. Methods We present here a comprehensive review, based on a systematic electronic literature search, of SC epidemiology and pharmacology and their clinical implications.

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Topics: Synthetic cannabinoids (57%), Cannabinoid (53%), Poison control (51%)

459 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1360-0443.2012.04078.X
01 Mar 2013-Addiction
Abstract: Aims Recently, several synthetic cannabinoids were identified in herbal mixtures consumed as recreational drugs alternative to cannabis products. The aim was to characterize the acute toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids as experienced by emergency patients. Design This was a retrospective study targeting patients seeking emergency treatment after recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids. Setting and participants Patients were selected from the database of the Poisons Information Center Freiburg between September 2008 and February 2011. The inclusion criteria were: hospitalization, available clinical reports and analytical verification of synthetic cannabinoid uptake. In total, 29 patients were included (age 14–30 years, median 19; 25 males, four females). Measurements Clinical reports were evaluated and synthetic cannabinoids and other drugs were determined analytically. Findings CP-47,497-C8 (one), JWH-015 (one), JWH-018 (eight), JWH-073 (one), JWH-081 (seven), JWH-122 (11), JWH-210 (11), JWH-250 (four) and AM 694 (one) were quantified in blood samples. JWH-018 was most common in 2008–9, JWH-122 in 2010, and JWH-210 in 2011. Tachycardia, agitation, hallucination, hypertension, minor elevation of blood glucose, hypokalaemia and vomiting were reported most frequently. Chest pain, seizures, myoclonia and acute psychosis were also noted. Conclusions There appears to have been an increase in use of the extremely potent synthetic cannabinoids JWH-122 and JWH-210. Acute toxic symptoms associated with their use are also reported after intake of high doses of cannabis, but agitation, seizures, hypertension, emesis and hypokalaemia seem to be characteristic to the synthetic cannabinoids, which are high-affinity and high-efficacy agonists of the CB1 receptor. Thus, these effects are due probably to a strong CB1 receptor stimulation.

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Topics: Synthetic cannabinoids (58%)

403 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2010.03.016
Jörg Teske1, Jens-Peter Weller1, A. Fieguth1, Thomas Rothämel1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The current paper describes a validated method for the detection and quantification of naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018), an ingredient of a herbal mixture called "Spice", by means of HPLC-ESI-MS-MS in serum. Lower limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 0.07 and 0.21 ng/ml, respectively. In 2 subjects who consumed ca. 50 μg/kg of JWH-018 by smoking, the active ingredient was detected by means of the described method. Thereby, the serum concentrations reached values of approx. 10 ng/ml and dropped within 3 h very fast (<10% of the measured maximum concentrations).

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193 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: In March 2012, the Wyoming Department of Health was notified by Natrona County public health officials regarding three patients hospitalized for unexplained acute kidney injury (AKI), all of whom reported recent use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), sometimes referred to as \"synthetic marijuana.\" SCs are designer drugs of abuse typically dissolved in a solvent, applied to dried plant material, and smoked as an alternative to marijuana. AKI has not been reported previously in users of SCs and might be associated with 1) a previously unrecognized toxicity, 2) a contaminant or a known nephrotoxin present in a single batch of drug, or 3) a new SC compound entering the market. After the Wyoming Department of Health launched an investigation and issued an alert, a total of 16 cases of AKI after SC use were reported in six states. Review of medical records, follow-up interviews with several patients, and laboratory analysis of product samples and clinical specimens were performed. The results of the investigation determined that no single SC brand or compound explained all 16 cases. Toxicologic analysis of product samples and clinical specimens (available from seven cases) identified a fluorinated SC previously unreported in synthetic marijuana products: (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone, also known as XLR-11, in four of five product samples and four of six patients' clinical specimens. Public health practitioners, poison center staff members, and clinicians should be aware of the potential for renal or other unusual toxicities in users of SC products and should ask about SC use in cases of unexplained AKI.

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Topics: Acute kidney injury (57%), Cannabinoid (53%)

152 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JMS.1877
Abstract: After the discovery of synthetic cannabimimetic substances in 'Spice'-like herbal mixtures marketed as 'incense' or 'plant fertilizer' the active compounds have been declared as controlled substances in several European countries. As expected, a monitoring of new herbal mixtures which continue to appear on the market revealed that shortly after control measures have been taken by legal authorities, other compounds were added to existing mixtures and to new products. Several compounds of the aminoalkylindole type have been detected so far in herbal mixtures but still their consumption cannot be detected by commonly used drug-screening procedures, encouraging drug users to substitute cannabis with those products. There is a increasing demand on the part of police authorities, hospitals and psychiatrists for detection and quantification of synthetic cannabinoids in biological samples originating from psychiatric inpatients, emergency units or assessment of fitness to drive. Therefore, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method after liquid-liquid extraction for the quantitation of JWH-015, JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH 200, JWH-250, WIN 55,212-2 and methanandamide and the detection of JWH-019 and JWH-020 in human serum has been developed and fully validated according to guidelines for forensic toxicological analyses. The method was successfully applied to 101 serum samples from 80 subjects provided by hospitals, detoxification and therapy centers, forensic psychiatric centers and police authorities. Fifty-seven samples or 56.4% were found positive for at least one aminoalkylindole. JWH-019, JWH-020, JWH-200, WIN 55,212-2 and methanandamide were not detected in any of the analyzed samples.

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Topics: JWH-200 (53%), Synthetic cannabinoids (53%)

147 Citations

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