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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/263/5/052023

Body worn camera

01 Nov 2017-Vol. 263, Iss: 5, pp 052023
Abstract: A body worn camera is small video camera worn on the body, typically used by police officers to record arrests, evidence from crime scenes. It helps preventing and resolving complaints brought by members of the public; and strengthening police transparency, performance, and accountability. The main constants of this type of the system are video format, resolution, frames rate, and audio quality. This system records the video in .mp4 format with 1080p resolution and 30 frames per second. One more important aspect to while designing this system is amount of power the system requires as battery management becomes very critical. The main design challenges are Size of the Video, Audio for the video. Combining both audio and video and saving it in .mp4 format, Battery, size that is required for 8 hours of continuous recording, Security. For prototyping this system is implemented using Raspberry Pi model B.

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Topics: Video camera (61%), 1080p (51%), Frame rate (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7202/1076693AR
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Les cameras portatives sont aujourd’hui considerees comme le nouvel outil ayant le potentiel de transformer la police. Celles-ci sont percues comme une solution pour : 1) augmenter la transparence, la reddition des comptes et la legitimite de la police ; 2) ameliorer l’efficacite des enquetes ; et 3) rehausser la securite des citoyens et des policiers. Or, les resultats du corpus d’etudes evaluant les effets reels de ces cameras sont, d’une part, mitiges, d’autre part, majoritairement americains. Le contexte social et legal canadien etant different de celui des Etats-Unis, les resultats americains ne sont pas necessairement transposables au Canada. Quelques evaluations canadiennes sont toutefois disponibles pour guider la prise de decisions relatives aux cameras portatives sur policiers au Canada. L’objectif du present article est donc de proposer une revue de la portee (scoping review) de 28 etudes sur les cameras portatives menees au Canada entre 2010 et 2021 et ayant souleve des enjeux de legitimite et d’efficacite de la police. Les constats sont divises en trois sections distinctes : 1) les bonnes pratiques en matiere d’utilisation des cameras portatives dans les organisations policieres canadiennes ; 2) le contraste entre les attentes a l’egard de cet outil et son reel potentiel ; et 3) les enjeux et limites associes a cet outil. Alors que l’article met en lumiere certains effets positifs des cameras portatives, une reflexion est entamee quant a leur plus-value a la lumiere de leurs enjeux et limites.

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References
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10940-014-9236-3
Abstract: Police use-of-force continues to be a major source of international concern, inviting interest from academics and practitioners alike Whether justified or unnecessary/excessive, the exercise of power by the police can potentially tarnish their relationship with the community Police misconduct can translate into complaints against the police, which carry large economic and social costs The question we try to answer is: do body-worn-cameras reduce the prevalence of use-of-force and/or citizens’ complaints against the police? We empirically tested the use of body-worn-cameras by measuring the effect of videotaping police–public encounters on incidents of police use-of-force and complaints, in randomized-controlled settings Over 12 months, we randomly-assigned officers to “experimental-shifts” during which they were equipped with body-worn HD cameras that recorded all contacts with the public and to “control-shifts” without the cameras (n = 988) We nominally defined use-of-force, both unnecessary/excessive and reasonable, as a non-desirable response in police–public encounters We estimate the causal effect of the use of body-worn-videos on the two outcome variables using both between-group differences using a Poisson regression model as well as before-after estimates using interrupted time-series analyses We found that the likelihood of force being used in control conditions were roughly twice those in experimental conditions Similarly, a pre/post analysis of use-of-force and complaints data also support this result: the number of complaints filed against officers dropped from 07 complaints per 1,000 contacts to 007 per 1,000 contacts We discuss the findings in terms of theory, research methods, policy and future avenues of research on body-worn-videos

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  • Table 1:
    Table 1:
  • Table 4: Generalized Linear Model with Poisson distribution and log link for use-of-force (n=988)
    Table 4: Generalized Linear Model with Poisson distribution and log link for use-of-force (n=988)
  • Table 5: Time Series ARIMA Model for use-of-force before/during experimental period (t=24)
    Table 5: Time Series ARIMA Model for use-of-force before/during experimental period (t=24)
  • Table 6: Time Series ARIMA Model for complaints before/during experimental period (t=24)
    Table 6: Time Series ARIMA Model for complaints before/during experimental period (t=24)
  • Table 2: Trial measures by treatment allocation
    Table 2: Trial measures by treatment allocation
  • + 1

Topics: Use of force (55%), Law enforcement (51%)

388 Citations


Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-55415-5_14
02 Jun 2014-
Abstract: Use of video surveillance has substantially increased in the last few decades. Modern video surveillance systems are equipped with techniques that allow traversal of data in an effective and efficient manner, giving massive powers to operators and potentially compromising the privacy of anyone observed by the system. Several techniques to protect the privacy of individuals have therefore been proposed, but very little research work has focused on the specific security requirements of video surveillance data (in transit or in storage) and on authorizing access to this data. In this paper, we present a general model of video surveillance systems that will help identify the major security and privacy requirements for a video surveillance system and we use this model to identify practical challenges in ensuring the security of video surveillance data in all stages (in transit and at rest). Our study shows a gap between the identified security requirements and the proposed security solutions where future research efforts may focus in this domain.

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Topics: Information privacy (62%), Data security (60%), Security testing (60%) ...read more

28 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICME.2011.6012206
11 Jul 2011-
Abstract: Video surveillance is a very effective tool of surveillance that enables a single security agent to monitor wide areas. However, it compromises the privacy of the individuals. There have been attempts to obfuscate face and silhouette regions of the images to hide the identity of individuals. We recognize that in traditional surveillance systems, the viewer generally has sufficient contextual knowledge about location of the camera, time, and activity patterns; which can lead to identity leakage even when the visual cues (face and appearance) are not present. In this way, the viewer can relate the identity of individuals to the sensitive information in the video causing privacy loss. In order to provide robust privacy preservation, the context knowledge needs to be decoupled from the video; however, human monitoring of the videos is also necessary for the assessment of the situation. In this paper we propose anonymous surveillance framework that decouples the contextual knowledge and video to the minimal extent required for situation assessment. The experimental results confirm that the proposed framework is very effective in protecting the privacy, yet does not affect much of the surveillance utility of the data.

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17 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The social conventions and expectations around the appropriate use of imaging and video has been transformed by the availability of video cameras in our pockets. The impact on law enforcement can easily be seen by watching the nightly news; more and more arrests, interventions, or even routine stops are being caught on cell phones or surveillance video, with both positive and negative consequences. This proliferation of the use of video has led law enforcement to look at the potential benefits of incorporating video capture systematically in their day to day operations. At the same time, recognition of the inevitability of widespread use of video for police operations has caused a rush to deploy all types of cameras, including body worn cameras. However, the vast majority of police agencies have limited experience in utilizing video to its full advantage, and thus do not have the capability to fully realize the value of expanding their video capabilities. In this white paper, we highlight some of the technology needs and challenges of body-worn cameras, and we relate these needs to the relevant state of the art in computer vision and multimedia research. We conclude with a set of recommendations.

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Topics: Video capture (64%), Law enforcement (55%)

15 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-41512-8_3
Thomas Winkler1, Bernhard Rinner1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2013-
Abstract: Video surveillance systems are usually installed to increase the safety and security of people or property in the monitored areas. Typical threat scenarios are robbery, vandalism, shoplifting or terrorism. Other application scenarios are more intimate and private such as home monitoring or assisted living. For a long time, it was accepted that the potential benefits of video surveillance go hand in hand with a loss of personal privacy. However, with the on-board processing capabilities of modern embedded systems it becomes possible to compensate this privacy loss by making security and privacy protection inherent features of video surveillance cameras. In the first part of this chapter, we motivate the need for the integration of security and privacy features, we discuss fundamental requirements and provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art. The second part presents the TrustCAM prototype system where a dedicated hardware security module is integrated into a camera system to achieve a high level of security. The chapter is concluded by a summary of open research issues and an outlook to future trends.

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11 Citations


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