Dissertation

# Boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure,

01 Jan 1971-

TL;DR: Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 1971 as discussed by the authors, Massachusetts State University, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

AbstractThesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 1971.

##### Citations
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Patent
30 Sep 2004
TL;DR: In this article, an electronic system includes an array of electronic assemblies at a first location within a system, and liquid cooling assemblies are placed at a second location within the system, for cooling the electronic assemblies.
Abstract: An electronic system includes an array of electronic assemblies at a first location within a system. An array of liquid cooling assemblies is placed at a second location within the system. Hoses or other liquid transport pathways connect the cooling assemblies to the electronic assemblies, for cooling the electronic assemblies. As more electronic assemblies are added to the system, additional cooling assemblies may be provided to manage the increased thermal demands.

54 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of possible immersion cooling configurations and the thermal mechanisms active in vapor-space and submerged condenser modules is presented, with a focus on the operational limits and relations for predicting the performance of submerged condensers.
Abstract: Direct immersion of electronic components in low-boiling point, dielectric fluids can provide a benign local ambience and accommodate substantial spatial and temporal power variations while minimizing component temperature excursions and failure rates. Following a review of possible immersion cooling configurations and the thermal mechanisms active in vapor-space and submerged condenser modules, attention is focused on the operational limits and relations for predicting submerged condenser performance. Finally, descriptions of three likely applications of submerged condenser technology are presented.

17 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: In this paper, the theory and practice of direct liquid cooling of microelectronic components is discussed, and a morphological analysis is suggested for the classification of liquid-cooling concepts.
Abstract: The present work reviews the theory and practice of direct liquid cooling of microelectronic components. A morphological analysis is suggested for the classification of liquid-cooling concepts. While both immersion and microgroove cooling of chips are discussed, the emphasis is on immersion cooling. The performance of individual chips and liquid incapsulated modules, including the submerged condenser, is reviewed in detail, with data presented. Flow-through modules and falling-film techniques are also discussed. Finally, figures-of-merit for coolants are noted.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the possibilities of developing a passive LWR design concept which could ensure sufficient decay heat removal in the absence of emergency primary coolant supply without exceeding the safe temperature limit on cladding, and which could achieve large nominal operating power output in the range 600-1000 MWe.
Abstract: This paper explores the possibilities of developing a passive LWR design concept which could ensure sufficient decay heat removal in the absence of emergency primary coolant supply without exceeding the safe temperature limit on cladding, and which could achieve large nominal operating power output in the range 600–1000 MWe. Various possibilities of passive decay heat removal in LWR concepts are assessed and choke points limiting the heat transfer from the fuel to the ultimate heat sink are identified. To eliminate these choke points, new core configurations are studied. The most promising concept appears to be a pressure tube reactor with fueled solid matrix and a separate moderator as a heat sink.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors look at the entire cooling approach from the chip level all the way to the plenum level, and propose a solution with dimensions of $150~{rm mm} \times 300~{\rm mm] \times 38$ mm ( $H \times L \times W$ ).
Abstract: As the demand grows for electronics to become faster and more compact, the expectation for tomorrow’s data center is no different. Like many of the current high performance data center installations, design considerations on all scales must be taken into account. The proposed solution does just this by looking at the entire cooling approach from the chip level all the way to the plenum level. The solution’s enclosure, where all the heated elements are immersed in either FC-72 or Novec 649, has dimensions of $150~{\rm mm} \times 300~{\rm mm} \times 38$ mm ( $H \times L \times W$ ). The design is versatile allowing for either flow or pool boiling heat transfer. Under pool boiling conditions, heat transfer coefficients as high as 11.5 kW/ $\text{m}^{2}\,\cdot \,\text{K}$ were achieved with surface enhancements and maximum power dissipations as high as 320 W were yielded as chip temperatures were roughly 58 °C, well below typical operating conditions. With the introduction of dielectric fluid flow within the enclosure, maximum power dissipations achieved increased substantially, reaching 605 W, which corresponds to a volumetric power dissipation of 0.354 W/cm3.

11 citations

### Cites background from "Boiling and condensation in a liqui..."

• ...area, although there are certainly a number of other factors at play [10]....

[...]

• ...The concept of condensation limited heat transfer proposed in [10] was also found to be a factor with this paper and will be discussed in greater detail at the point that the pertinent data are presented....

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• ...In accordance with [10], the slope of the maximum heat dissipations achieved follows a linear trend as facility water temperature is decreased, suggesting a constant system level thermal resistance....

[...]

• ...In [10], it was clear that the reason for this has to be what was referred to as condensive limitations....

[...]

• ...paper is that done in [10], where, similar to the proposed...

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##### References
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Book
01 Jun 1961

571 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

543 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Han Chi-Yeh
TL;DR: In this article, a criterion for bubble initiation from a gas filled cavity on a surface in contact with a superheated layer of liquid was developed, and it was found that the temperature of bubble initiation on a given surface is a function of the temperature conditions in the liquid surrounding the cavity as well as the surface properties themselves.
Abstract: A criterion is developed for bubble initiation from a gas filled cavity on a surface in contact with a superheated layer of liquid. It is found that the temperature of bubble initiation on a given surface is a function of the temperature conditions in the liquid surrounding the cavity as well as the surface properties themselves. It is also found that the delay time between bubbles is a function of the bulk liquid temperature and the wall superheat, and is not constant for a given surface. By consideration of the transient conduction into a layer of liquid on the surface, a thermal layer thickness is obtained. With this thickness and a critical wall superheat relation for the cavity, a bubble growth rate is obtained. Bubble departure is considered and it is found that the Jakob and Fritz relation works as long as the true (non-equilibrium) bubble contact angle is used. At one gravity the primary effect of bubble growth velocity on bubble departure size is found to be due to contact angle changes.

412 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived the maximum and minimum heat-transfer rates in the nucleate and the film-boiling regimes, respectively, using the classical results of Helmholtz Kelvan and Rayleigh expressions.
Abstract: Boiling heat transfer in the nucleate region is reviewed The transition film-boiling region is analyzed by considering the stability of a plane vortex sheet separating two inviscid fluids Using the classical results of Helmholtz Kelvan and Rayleigh expressions have been derived that predict the maximum and minimum heat-transfer rates in the nucleate and the film-boiling regimes, respectively The model exhibits the essential features of the phenomenon and shows good agreement with experimental data (auth)

337 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

297 citations